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Table 4.
Mass Layoffs and Two-Year College Enrollment, Degrees, and Certificates, Before and After 2007
Fall EnrollmentAssociate Degrees and Certificates
Total (1)First-Time (2)Total (3)AA/AS (4)1—4 Year Certificate (5)<1 Year Certificate (6)
Layoffs, t − 1 0.011 0.017* 0.00025 −0.0089 0.023 −0.0095 
 (0.0098) (0.0092) (0.0085) (0.011) (0.017) (0.024) 
Layoffs, t − 2 0.0043 0.017** 0.019*** 0.0048 0.024** 0.063*** 
 (0.0062) (0.0068) (0.0063) (0.0092) (0.0099) (0.022) 
Layoffs, t − 3 −0.0048 −0.016 −0.0068 −0.024* 0.015 0.0045 
 (0.0092) (0.0099) (0.0066) (0.014) (0.011) (0.02) 
Layoffs, t − 1 × Post-2007 −0.00069 0.019 0.0081 0.0089 0.024 0.055** 
 (0.0086) (0.014) (0.0079) (0.0079) (0.02) (0.028) 
Layoffs, t − 2 × Post-2007 −0.0066 −0.00046 −0.016** −0.0092 −0.0039 −0.078** 
 (0.0061) (0.01) (0.0063) (0.0083) (0.018) (0.031) 
Layoffs, t − 3 × Post-2007 0.009 0.01 0.020** 0.014 0.017 0.018 
 (0.0091) (0.012) (0.008) (0.0089) (0.027) (0.029) 
Y-mean 12,184.2 2,138.1 1,664.7 1,051.7 320.8 493.3 
Observations 6,882 6,882 6,872 6,318 6,714 5354 
R2 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.95 0.94 
Year fixed effects 
Commuting zone fixed effects 
Commuting zone trends 
Fall EnrollmentAssociate Degrees and Certificates
Total (1)First-Time (2)Total (3)AA/AS (4)1—4 Year Certificate (5)<1 Year Certificate (6)
Layoffs, t − 1 0.011 0.017* 0.00025 −0.0089 0.023 −0.0095 
 (0.0098) (0.0092) (0.0085) (0.011) (0.017) (0.024) 
Layoffs, t − 2 0.0043 0.017** 0.019*** 0.0048 0.024** 0.063*** 
 (0.0062) (0.0068) (0.0063) (0.0092) (0.0099) (0.022) 
Layoffs, t − 3 −0.0048 −0.016 −0.0068 −0.024* 0.015 0.0045 
 (0.0092) (0.0099) (0.0066) (0.014) (0.011) (0.02) 
Layoffs, t − 1 × Post-2007 −0.00069 0.019 0.0081 0.0089 0.024 0.055** 
 (0.0086) (0.014) (0.0079) (0.0079) (0.02) (0.028) 
Layoffs, t − 2 × Post-2007 −0.0066 −0.00046 −0.016** −0.0092 −0.0039 −0.078** 
 (0.0061) (0.01) (0.0063) (0.0083) (0.018) (0.031) 
Layoffs, t − 3 × Post-2007 0.009 0.01 0.020** 0.014 0.017 0.018 
 (0.0091) (0.012) (0.008) (0.0089) (0.027) (0.029) 
Y-mean 12,184.2 2,138.1 1,664.7 1,051.7 320.8 493.3 
Observations 6,882 6,882 6,872 6,318 6,714 5354 
R2 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.95 0.94 
Year fixed effects 
Commuting zone fixed effects 
Commuting zone trends 

Notes: Outcome variables are listed at the top of each column, and are the log counts of the corresponding outcome. Estimates are from equation 1, and allows the effect of mass layoffs to differ before and after 2007. All regressions include year and commuting zone fixed effects, commuting zone specific trends, and demographic controls. Regressions are weighted by commuting zone population. Standard errors are clustered on commuting zone. AA/AS = Associate of Arts/Associate of Science.

*p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01.

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