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Table 5.
Effects of a Double Major on Employment and Graduate School Enrollment
2009 (1 Year Post-BA)2012 (4 Years Post-BA)
Higher Paying MajorLower Paying MajorHigher Paying MajorLower Paying Major
OLSPSWOLSPSWOLSPSWOLSPSW
1 = In labor force; −0.110 −0.049 −0.040 −0.016 0.140 0.176 0.183 0.289** 
0 = Out of labor forcea (0.128) (0.141) (0.133) (0.189) (0.124) (0.132) (0.124) (0.117) 
N 9,920 9,920 9,920 9,920 10,600 9,620 10,600 9,620 
1 = Employed; 0 = Unemployedb −0.108 −0.062 −0.028 0.010 0.109 0.245 0.216 0.297* 
 (0.124) (0.125) (0.131) (0.138) (0.129) (0.171) (0.133) (0.180) 
N 9,520 9,520 9,520 9,520 9,700 8,710 9,700 8,710 
1 = Full-time; 0 = Part-timec −0.093 −0.101 0.087 0.127* 0.069 0.115 0.142 0.223 
 (0.092) (0.071) (0.096) (0.068) (0.127) (0.162) (0.123) (0.148) 
N 8,590 8,590 8,590 8,590 8,900 7,920 8,900 7,920 
Log (Working hours per week)c 0.008 0.015 0.063* 0.084** 0.034 0.055 0.055** 0.063** 
 (0.030) (0.033) (0.033) (0.033) (0.022) (0.030) (0.022) (0.028) 
N 8,590 8,590 8,590 8,590 9,380 7,800 9,380 7,800 
Graduate school enrollmentd 0.054 0.029 −0.012 0.012 0.228*** 0.209** 0.158* 0.145* 
 (0.078) (0.084) (0.082) (0.088) (0.080) (0.089) (0.083) (0.087) 
N 13,380 13,380 13,380 13,380 12,990 12,000 12,990 12,000 
2009 (1 Year Post-BA)2012 (4 Years Post-BA)
Higher Paying MajorLower Paying MajorHigher Paying MajorLower Paying Major
OLSPSWOLSPSWOLSPSWOLSPSW
1 = In labor force; −0.110 −0.049 −0.040 −0.016 0.140 0.176 0.183 0.289** 
0 = Out of labor forcea (0.128) (0.141) (0.133) (0.189) (0.124) (0.132) (0.124) (0.117) 
N 9,920 9,920 9,920 9,920 10,600 9,620 10,600 9,620 
1 = Employed; 0 = Unemployedb −0.108 −0.062 −0.028 0.010 0.109 0.245 0.216 0.297* 
 (0.124) (0.125) (0.131) (0.138) (0.129) (0.171) (0.133) (0.180) 
N 9,520 9,520 9,520 9,520 9,700 8,710 9,700 8,710 
1 = Full-time; 0 = Part-timec −0.093 −0.101 0.087 0.127* 0.069 0.115 0.142 0.223 
 (0.092) (0.071) (0.096) (0.068) (0.127) (0.162) (0.123) (0.148) 
N 8,590 8,590 8,590 8,590 8,900 7,920 8,900 7,920 
Log (Working hours per week)c 0.008 0.015 0.063* 0.084** 0.034 0.055 0.055** 0.063** 
 (0.030) (0.033) (0.033) (0.033) (0.022) (0.030) (0.022) (0.028) 
N 8,590 8,590 8,590 8,590 9,380 7,800 9,380 7,800 
Graduate school enrollmentd 0.054 0.029 −0.012 0.012 0.228*** 0.209** 0.158* 0.145* 
 (0.078) (0.084) (0.082) (0.088) (0.080) (0.089) (0.083) (0.087) 
N 13,380 13,380 13,380 13,380 12,990 12,000 12,990 12,000 

Notes: Control variables include demographic and family background, academic performance, and institutional control and selectivity. Propensity scores are estimated from the preferred logit model. BA = bachelor's degree; OLS = ordinary least squares; PSW = propensity score weighting.

aEstimations are based on the respondents who were not enrolled.

bEstimations are based on the respondents who were in the labor force and not enrolled.

cEstimations are based on the respondents who were employed and not enrolled.

dEstimations are based on all respondents who had participated 2009 and 2012 interviews and had valid transcript data.

*p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.

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