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Table 1. 
Single Participant Comparisons for the Four Outcome Variables in the Identity and Expression Tests
 IdentityExpressionIdentity–Expression
Raw Scorez Scorep (One-Tailed)Raw Scorez Scorep (One-Tailed)z Differencep (One-Tailed)Z-DCC95% CI Z-DCC
Accuracy
 Controls Average 0.93, SD = 0.05Controls Average 0.93, SD = 0.03 
DP003 0.92 −0.172 .434 0.95 0.623 .272 −0.795 .242 −0.712 −1.133, −0.305 
DP024 0.98 1.019 .162 0.96 1.052 .155 −0.033 .488 −0.030 −0.513, 0.453 
DP032 0.83 −2.012 .029 0.89 −1.176 .129 −0.836 .237 −0.748 −1.404, −0.127 
DP033 0.96 0.641 .267 0.89 −1.006 .166 1.647 .076 1.475 0.959, 2.025 
DP035 0.96 0.641 .267 0.88 −1.605 .063 2.246 .027 2.010 1.383, 2.695 
DP039 0.91 −0.333 .373 0.89 −1.262 .112 0.929 .208 0.831 0.355, 1.333 
DP044 0.96 0.641 .267 0.91 −0.577 .287 1.218 .143 1.091 0.640, 1.564 
DP301 0.82 −2.175 .021 0.94 0.454 .329 −2.629 .013 −2.353 −3.151, −1.629 
DP302 0.95 0.316 .379 0.96 0.883 .196 −0.567 .309 −0.507 −0.942, −0.086 
DP303 0.95 0.316 .379 0.94 0.367 .360 −0.051 .482 −0.046 −0.425, 0.332 
DP304 0.89 −0.766 .229 0.93 0.025 .490 −0.791 .243 −0.708 −1.139, −0.293 
DP305 0.95 0.425 .340 0.93 0.194 .425 0.231 .419 0.206 −0.172, 0.587 
DP306 0.91 −0.495 .315 0.91 −0.404 .347 −0.091 .468 −0.081 −0.471, 0.307 
  
Sensitivity (d′)
 Controls Average 3.23, SD = 0.63Controls Average 3.14, SD = 0.43 
DP003 2.92 −0.497 .314 3.37 0.531 .303 −1.028 .183 −0.918 −1.362, −0.492 
DP024 3.81 0.918 .187 3.60 1.064 .152 −0.146 .449 −0.131 −0.607, 0.342 
DP032 2.29 −1.507 .075 2.56 −1.337 .100 −0.170 .442 −0.152 −0.723, 0.413 
DP033 3.38 0.236 .409 2.56 −1.334 .100 1.570 .087 1.401 0.878, 1.963 
DP035 3.49 0.410 .345 2.32 −1.893 .037 2.303 .025 2.056 1.400, 2.774 
DP039 2.81 −0.672 .257 2.47 −1.548 .070 0.876 .224 0.782 0.259, 1.335 
DP044 3.51 0.446 .332 2.72 −0.969 .174 1.415 .109 1.263 0.780, 1.775 
DP301 3.28 0.067 .474 3.29 0.343 .369 −0.276 .404 −0.247 −0.623, 0.125 
DP302 3.58 0.551 .296 3.72 1.341 .099 −0.790 .246 −0.706 −1.217, −0.217 
DP303 3.49 0.412 .344 3.24 0.246 .405 0.166 .442 0.148 −0.230, 0.528 
DP304 2.84 −0.626 .272 3.12 −0.043 .483 −0.583 .304 −0.520 −0.927, −0.125 
DP305 3.73 0.795 .220 3.07 −0.144 .444 0.939 .205 0.839 0.411, 1.283 
DP306 3.10 −0.208 .420 2.81 −0.758 .231 0.550 .314 0.492 0.084, 0.910 
  
RT
 Controls Average 2627, SD = 872Controls Average 1993, SD = 458 
DP003 5145 2.888 .004 3188 2.609 .008 0.279 .387 0.319 −0.658, 1.312 
DP024 3445 0.938 .182 2043 0.109 .458 0.829 .176 0.950 0.490, 1.436 
DP032 6554 4.503 .000 2500 1.107 .143 3.396 .001 3.894 2.550, 5.394 
DP033 5758 3.591 .001 2394 0.876 .198 2.715 .003 3.113 2.018, 4.329 
DP035 11750 10.462 .000 3478 3.242 .002 7.220 .000 8.278 5.303, 2.15E+09 
DP039 3354 0.834 .210 3198 2.631 .008 −1.797 .029 −2.061 −2.964, −1.234 
DP044 4459 2.101 .024 2258 0.579 .287 1.522 .050 1.746 1.044, 2.509 
DP301 4599 2.261 .017 2277 0.62 .274 1.641 .039 1.882 1.141, 2.691 
DP302 6154 4.045 .000 3952 4.277 .000 −0.232 .414 −0.267 −1.700, 1.158 
DP303 3741 1.278 .110 2380 0.845 .207 0.433 .315 0.496 −0.019, 1.027 
DP304 5826 3.669 .001 2671 1.48 .078 2.189 .014 2.509 1.426, 3.696 
DP305 8858 7.146 .000 4011 4.406 .000 2.740 .015 3.141 1.101, 5.332 
DP306 2514 −0.130 .450 2041 0.105 .459 −0.235 .395 −0.269 −0.641, 0.099 
  
Set size effects
 Controls Average 205, SD = 75Controls Average 161, SD = 68 
DP003 778 7.640 .000 262 1.485 .078 6.155 .000 5.007 3.238, 2.15E+09 
DP024 330 1.667 .056 147 −0.206 .421 1.873 .071 1.523 0.966, 2.125 
DP032 562 4.760 .000 45 −1.706 .052 6.466 .000 5.260 3.854, 2.15E+09 
DP033 525 4.267 .000 236 1.103 .144 3.164 .011 2.574 1.546, 3.730 
DP035 901 9.280 .000 300 2.044 .027 7.236 .000 5.886 3.763, 2.15E+09 
DP039 366 2.147 .022 85 −1.118 .141 3.265 .007 2.655 1.894, 3.491 
DP044 452 3.293 .002 216 0.809 .217 2.484 .031 2.021 1.193, 2.944 
DP301 392 2.493 .010 174 0.191 .426 2.302 .038 1.873 1.184, 2.632 
DP302 798 7.907 .000 478 4.662 .000 3.245 .030 2.640 0.742, 4.713 
DP303 489 3.787 .000 204 0.632 .270 3.155 .010 2.566 1.628, 3.621 
DP304 348 1.907 .036 121 −0.588 .284 2.495 .027 2.030 1.387, 2.729 
DP305 738 7.107 .000 132 −0.426 .339 7.533 .000 6.128 4.343, 2.15E+09 
DP306 212 0.093 .464 205 0.647 .265 −0.554 .328 −0.450 −0.852, −0.058 
 IdentityExpressionIdentity–Expression
Raw Scorez Scorep (One-Tailed)Raw Scorez Scorep (One-Tailed)z Differencep (One-Tailed)Z-DCC95% CI Z-DCC
Accuracy
 Controls Average 0.93, SD = 0.05Controls Average 0.93, SD = 0.03 
DP003 0.92 −0.172 .434 0.95 0.623 .272 −0.795 .242 −0.712 −1.133, −0.305 
DP024 0.98 1.019 .162 0.96 1.052 .155 −0.033 .488 −0.030 −0.513, 0.453 
DP032 0.83 −2.012 .029 0.89 −1.176 .129 −0.836 .237 −0.748 −1.404, −0.127 
DP033 0.96 0.641 .267 0.89 −1.006 .166 1.647 .076 1.475 0.959, 2.025 
DP035 0.96 0.641 .267 0.88 −1.605 .063 2.246 .027 2.010 1.383, 2.695 
DP039 0.91 −0.333 .373 0.89 −1.262 .112 0.929 .208 0.831 0.355, 1.333 
DP044 0.96 0.641 .267 0.91 −0.577 .287 1.218 .143 1.091 0.640, 1.564 
DP301 0.82 −2.175 .021 0.94 0.454 .329 −2.629 .013 −2.353 −3.151, −1.629 
DP302 0.95 0.316 .379 0.96 0.883 .196 −0.567 .309 −0.507 −0.942, −0.086 
DP303 0.95 0.316 .379 0.94 0.367 .360 −0.051 .482 −0.046 −0.425, 0.332 
DP304 0.89 −0.766 .229 0.93 0.025 .490 −0.791 .243 −0.708 −1.139, −0.293 
DP305 0.95 0.425 .340 0.93 0.194 .425 0.231 .419 0.206 −0.172, 0.587 
DP306 0.91 −0.495 .315 0.91 −0.404 .347 −0.091 .468 −0.081 −0.471, 0.307 
  
Sensitivity (d′)
 Controls Average 3.23, SD = 0.63Controls Average 3.14, SD = 0.43 
DP003 2.92 −0.497 .314 3.37 0.531 .303 −1.028 .183 −0.918 −1.362, −0.492 
DP024 3.81 0.918 .187 3.60 1.064 .152 −0.146 .449 −0.131 −0.607, 0.342 
DP032 2.29 −1.507 .075 2.56 −1.337 .100 −0.170 .442 −0.152 −0.723, 0.413 
DP033 3.38 0.236 .409 2.56 −1.334 .100 1.570 .087 1.401 0.878, 1.963 
DP035 3.49 0.410 .345 2.32 −1.893 .037 2.303 .025 2.056 1.400, 2.774 
DP039 2.81 −0.672 .257 2.47 −1.548 .070 0.876 .224 0.782 0.259, 1.335 
DP044 3.51 0.446 .332 2.72 −0.969 .174 1.415 .109 1.263 0.780, 1.775 
DP301 3.28 0.067 .474 3.29 0.343 .369 −0.276 .404 −0.247 −0.623, 0.125 
DP302 3.58 0.551 .296 3.72 1.341 .099 −0.790 .246 −0.706 −1.217, −0.217 
DP303 3.49 0.412 .344 3.24 0.246 .405 0.166 .442 0.148 −0.230, 0.528 
DP304 2.84 −0.626 .272 3.12 −0.043 .483 −0.583 .304 −0.520 −0.927, −0.125 
DP305 3.73 0.795 .220 3.07 −0.144 .444 0.939 .205 0.839 0.411, 1.283 
DP306 3.10 −0.208 .420 2.81 −0.758 .231 0.550 .314 0.492 0.084, 0.910 
  
RT
 Controls Average 2627, SD = 872Controls Average 1993, SD = 458 
DP003 5145 2.888 .004 3188 2.609 .008 0.279 .387 0.319 −0.658, 1.312 
DP024 3445 0.938 .182 2043 0.109 .458 0.829 .176 0.950 0.490, 1.436 
DP032 6554 4.503 .000 2500 1.107 .143 3.396 .001 3.894 2.550, 5.394 
DP033 5758 3.591 .001 2394 0.876 .198 2.715 .003 3.113 2.018, 4.329 
DP035 11750 10.462 .000 3478 3.242 .002 7.220 .000 8.278 5.303, 2.15E+09 
DP039 3354 0.834 .210 3198 2.631 .008 −1.797 .029 −2.061 −2.964, −1.234 
DP044 4459 2.101 .024 2258 0.579 .287 1.522 .050 1.746 1.044, 2.509 
DP301 4599 2.261 .017 2277 0.62 .274 1.641 .039 1.882 1.141, 2.691 
DP302 6154 4.045 .000 3952 4.277 .000 −0.232 .414 −0.267 −1.700, 1.158 
DP303 3741 1.278 .110 2380 0.845 .207 0.433 .315 0.496 −0.019, 1.027 
DP304 5826 3.669 .001 2671 1.48 .078 2.189 .014 2.509 1.426, 3.696 
DP305 8858 7.146 .000 4011 4.406 .000 2.740 .015 3.141 1.101, 5.332 
DP306 2514 −0.130 .450 2041 0.105 .459 −0.235 .395 −0.269 −0.641, 0.099 
  
Set size effects
 Controls Average 205, SD = 75Controls Average 161, SD = 68 
DP003 778 7.640 .000 262 1.485 .078 6.155 .000 5.007 3.238, 2.15E+09 
DP024 330 1.667 .056 147 −0.206 .421 1.873 .071 1.523 0.966, 2.125 
DP032 562 4.760 .000 45 −1.706 .052 6.466 .000 5.260 3.854, 2.15E+09 
DP033 525 4.267 .000 236 1.103 .144 3.164 .011 2.574 1.546, 3.730 
DP035 901 9.280 .000 300 2.044 .027 7.236 .000 5.886 3.763, 2.15E+09 
DP039 366 2.147 .022 85 −1.118 .141 3.265 .007 2.655 1.894, 3.491 
DP044 452 3.293 .002 216 0.809 .217 2.484 .031 2.021 1.193, 2.944 
DP301 392 2.493 .010 174 0.191 .426 2.302 .038 1.873 1.184, 2.632 
DP302 798 7.907 .000 478 4.662 .000 3.245 .030 2.640 0.742, 4.713 
DP303 489 3.787 .000 204 0.632 .270 3.155 .010 2.566 1.628, 3.621 
DP304 348 1.907 .036 121 −0.588 .284 2.495 .027 2.030 1.387, 2.729 
DP305 738 7.107 .000 132 −0.426 .339 7.533 .000 6.128 4.343, 2.15E+09 
DP306 212 0.093 .464 205 0.647 .265 −0.554 .328 −0.450 −0.852, −0.058 

Bold indicates significant result. Z-DCC = the effect size for the score difference between the two tasks.

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