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Table 1. 
Behavioral Data (Mean and SD) for Performance Outcomes
 Test Session
PretestPosttestd (Pre vs. Post)Retentiond (Pre vs. Retention)
RE (cm) MI 8.70 (3.89) 8.93 (5.08) 0.05 8.37(5.41) −0.07 
PP 8.04 (4.05) 5.96 (1.41) −0.69 5.75(1.27) −0.76 
  
BVE (cm) MI 9.69 (4.72) 8.58 (3.84) −0.26 8.30(3.33) −0.34 
PP 9.19 (4.92) 5.72 (1.24) −0.97 5.97(1.15) −0.90 
  
Kinematic variable 
Shoulder (°) Maximum flexion MI 63.0 (4.4) 65.7 (3.3) −0.61 66.2 (4.4) 0.00 
PP 68.0 (5.2) 70.8 (2.8) −1.01 70.4 (3.2) −0.92 
Release MI 80.4 (5.3) 80.8 (5.7) 0.09 83.6 (4.2) −0.33 
PP 82.8 (4.5) 85.3 (3.9) −0.39 83.2 (3.6) −0.58 
Elbow (°) Maximum flexion MI 36.2 (2.6) 36.9 (2.8) 0.24 37.3 (2.7) 0.10 
PP 35.5 (3.1) 38.0 (2.7) −0.36 37.6 (2.8) −0.30 
Release MI 92.4 (13.4) 96.1 (12.9) −0.16 96.0 (12.3) −0.38 
PP 96.9 (11.9) 95.2 (11.2) −0.18 96.5 (10.2) −0.43 
Time (sec) Preparation MI 4.4 (1.4) 4.5 (1.3) −0.32 4.3 (1.1) −0.47 
PP 3.8 (1.0) 3.52 (0.89) −0.14 3.9 (1.0) 0.03 
Release MI 0.18 (0.03) 0.17 (0.03) −0.07 0.17 (0.03) 0.06 
PP 0.21 (0.03) 0.16 (0.03) −0.46 0.16 (0.02) −0.89 
  
Angular velocitya (°/sec) MI 334.5 (95.2) 365.6 (115.4) 0.30 370.7 (111.1) 0.35 
PP 289.1 (95.7) 350.9 (121.9) 0.55 359.8 (103.8) 0.68 
 Test Session
PretestPosttestd (Pre vs. Post)Retentiond (Pre vs. Retention)
RE (cm) MI 8.70 (3.89) 8.93 (5.08) 0.05 8.37(5.41) −0.07 
PP 8.04 (4.05) 5.96 (1.41) −0.69 5.75(1.27) −0.76 
  
BVE (cm) MI 9.69 (4.72) 8.58 (3.84) −0.26 8.30(3.33) −0.34 
PP 9.19 (4.92) 5.72 (1.24) −0.97 5.97(1.15) −0.90 
  
Kinematic variable 
Shoulder (°) Maximum flexion MI 63.0 (4.4) 65.7 (3.3) −0.61 66.2 (4.4) 0.00 
PP 68.0 (5.2) 70.8 (2.8) −1.01 70.4 (3.2) −0.92 
Release MI 80.4 (5.3) 80.8 (5.7) 0.09 83.6 (4.2) −0.33 
PP 82.8 (4.5) 85.3 (3.9) −0.39 83.2 (3.6) −0.58 
Elbow (°) Maximum flexion MI 36.2 (2.6) 36.9 (2.8) 0.24 37.3 (2.7) 0.10 
PP 35.5 (3.1) 38.0 (2.7) −0.36 37.6 (2.8) −0.30 
Release MI 92.4 (13.4) 96.1 (12.9) −0.16 96.0 (12.3) −0.38 
PP 96.9 (11.9) 95.2 (11.2) −0.18 96.5 (10.2) −0.43 
Time (sec) Preparation MI 4.4 (1.4) 4.5 (1.3) −0.32 4.3 (1.1) −0.47 
PP 3.8 (1.0) 3.52 (0.89) −0.14 3.9 (1.0) 0.03 
Release MI 0.18 (0.03) 0.17 (0.03) −0.07 0.17 (0.03) 0.06 
PP 0.21 (0.03) 0.16 (0.03) −0.46 0.16 (0.02) −0.89 
  
Angular velocitya (°/sec) MI 334.5 (95.2) 365.6 (115.4) 0.30 370.7 (111.1) 0.35 
PP 289.1 (95.7) 350.9 (121.9) 0.55 359.8 (103.8) 0.68 

Effect sizes conducted to characterize changes in performance (posttest minus pretest and retention minus pretest) are included. Improvements in performance are noted by negative effect sizes reflecting a decrease in error (RE and BVE) and kinematic variability and by positive effect sizes reflecting an increase in angular velocity.

a

Effect sizes calculated for angular velocity were conducted on the mean values observed for each time point, and thus a positive effect size is indicative of an increase in angular velocity across practice sessions.

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