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Table 3. 
Behavioral Measures of Executive Functions, PM, and Future Orientation
 Adolescents, Mean (SE)Adults, Mean (SE)Age Group Comparison
PMa 
PRMQ (PM subscale; 8–40) 22.0 (0.7) 20.6 (0.8) t(45) = 1.4, p = .17 
PRMQ (RM subscale; 8–40) 19.1 (0.9) 19.4 (0.9) t(45) = 0.3, p = .76 
  
Future orientation 
FOS (1–4)b 2.9 (0.1) 3.1 (0.1) t(43) = 1.9,cp = .06 
  
Executive functions 
WebExec (6–24)d 13.5 (0.5) 12.8 (0.7) t(45) = 0.9, p =.42 
Forward digit span score (1–22) 16.8 (0.7) 18.2 (0.8) t(45) = 1.4, p = .18 
Backward digit span score (1–22)e 9.0 (0.6) 12.2 (0.8) t(44) = 3.5, p = .001 
No-go accuracy (%) 87.7 (1.7) 91.2 (2.1) t(45) = 1.4, p = .16 
 Adolescents, Mean (SE)Adults, Mean (SE)Age Group Comparison
PMa 
PRMQ (PM subscale; 8–40) 22.0 (0.7) 20.6 (0.8) t(45) = 1.4, p = .17 
PRMQ (RM subscale; 8–40) 19.1 (0.9) 19.4 (0.9) t(45) = 0.3, p = .76 
  
Future orientation 
FOS (1–4)b 2.9 (0.1) 3.1 (0.1) t(43) = 1.9,cp = .06 
  
Executive functions 
WebExec (6–24)d 13.5 (0.5) 12.8 (0.7) t(45) = 0.9, p =.42 
Forward digit span score (1–22) 16.8 (0.7) 18.2 (0.8) t(45) = 1.4, p = .18 
Backward digit span score (1–22)e 9.0 (0.6) 12.2 (0.8) t(44) = 3.5, p = .001 
No-go accuracy (%) 87.7 (1.7) 91.2 (2.1) t(45) = 1.4, p = .16 

Summary statistics of measures collected in adolescent and adult participants. The possible range for each measure is given in brackets. FOS = Future Orientation and Delayed Discounting Scale; PRMQ = Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire; RM = retrospective memory.

a

Higher scores indicate more PM and RM failures.

b

Higher scores indicate stronger future orientation.

c

One adult and one adolescent participant did not complete the FOS.

d

Higher scores indicate more executive functioning failures.

e

One adolescent participant did not complete the backward digit span task.

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