Skip to Main Content
Table 1. 
Hypothesized Characteristics of Online and Offline Waking States
MeasurementOnline StateOffline State
EEG ↓ Alpha and slow oscillation ↑ Alpha and slow oscillation 
Pupillometry ↑ Pupil diameter reflecting increased NE and ACh neuromodulation ↓ Pupil diameter reflecting decreased NE and ACh neuromodulation 
Mental experience Focus on the present sensory environment Focus on task-unrelated thought and imagery 
RT ↓ SART RTs reflecting increased attention to the present sensory environment ↑ SART RTs reflecting decreased attention to the present sensory environment 
Memory processes ↑ Encoding ↓ Encoding 
↓ Consolidation ↑ Consolidation 
MeasurementOnline StateOffline State
EEG ↓ Alpha and slow oscillation ↑ Alpha and slow oscillation 
Pupillometry ↑ Pupil diameter reflecting increased NE and ACh neuromodulation ↓ Pupil diameter reflecting decreased NE and ACh neuromodulation 
Mental experience Focus on the present sensory environment Focus on task-unrelated thought and imagery 
RT ↓ SART RTs reflecting increased attention to the present sensory environment ↑ SART RTs reflecting decreased attention to the present sensory environment 
Memory processes ↑ Encoding ↓ Encoding 
↓ Consolidation ↑ Consolidation 

The current study was motivated by the hypothesized existence of at least two statistically discriminable states of wakefulness—an “online” state optimized for encoding the present sensory environment and an “offline” state optimized for consolidation of previously encoded information.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal