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Table 1. 
Sample characteristics
 LR N = 58HR-NoASD N = 51HR-ASD N = 21p Value by outcome (LR vs HR-NoASD vs HR-ASD)p Value by risk (LR vs HRa)
Sexb 30M, 28F 25M, 26F 14M, 7F 0.4 0.86 
Parental educationb, n (%)       0.060 0.04 
 Not answered 6 (10) 2 (4) 5 (24)     
 <4-year college degree 3 (5) 10 (20) 3 (14)     
 4-year college degree 10 (17) 10 (20) 6 (29)     
 >4-year college degree 39 (67) 29 (57) 7 (33)     
Household incomeb, n (%)       0.82 0.44 
 Not answered 8 (14) 3 (6) 6 (29)     
 <$75,000 9 (15) 6 (12) 2 (9)     
 >$75,000 41 (71) 42 (82) 13 (62)     
Raceb, n (%)       0.28 0.57 
 Non-white 7 (12) 3 (6) 4 (19)     
Ethnicityb, n (%)       0.08 0.13 
 Hispanic or Latino 1 (2) 3 (6) 3 (14)     
Number of EEG time pointsc Mean ± SD 4.03 ± 1.1 3.64 ± 1.2 3.9 ± 1.3 0.23 0.13 
24m MSEL VDQd Mean ± SD 118.0 ± 15.3 112.0 ± 14.3 96 ± 22.6 0.0007 0.03 
24m MSEL NVDQd Mean ± SD 110.1 ± 15.0 107.0 ± 11.9 97 ± 22.6 0.02 0.14 
24m ADOS severity scoree Mean ± SD 1.61 ± 0.86 1.91 ± 1.13 5.25 ± 2.47 0.0001 0.003 
Participant EEG data included in analysis, n (%) 
 3 months 9 (15) 15 (29) 7 (33)     
 6 months 44 (76) 30 (59) 13 (62)     
 9 months 48 (83) 37 (73) 15 (71)     
 12 months 52 (90) 33 (65) 19 (91)     
 18 months 37 (64) 32 (62) 14 (67)     
 24 months 44 (76) 39 (77) 14 (67)     
 LR N = 58HR-NoASD N = 51HR-ASD N = 21p Value by outcome (LR vs HR-NoASD vs HR-ASD)p Value by risk (LR vs HRa)
Sexb 30M, 28F 25M, 26F 14M, 7F 0.4 0.86 
Parental educationb, n (%)       0.060 0.04 
 Not answered 6 (10) 2 (4) 5 (24)     
 <4-year college degree 3 (5) 10 (20) 3 (14)     
 4-year college degree 10 (17) 10 (20) 6 (29)     
 >4-year college degree 39 (67) 29 (57) 7 (33)     
Household incomeb, n (%)       0.82 0.44 
 Not answered 8 (14) 3 (6) 6 (29)     
 <$75,000 9 (15) 6 (12) 2 (9)     
 >$75,000 41 (71) 42 (82) 13 (62)     
Raceb, n (%)       0.28 0.57 
 Non-white 7 (12) 3 (6) 4 (19)     
Ethnicityb, n (%)       0.08 0.13 
 Hispanic or Latino 1 (2) 3 (6) 3 (14)     
Number of EEG time pointsc Mean ± SD 4.03 ± 1.1 3.64 ± 1.2 3.9 ± 1.3 0.23 0.13 
24m MSEL VDQd Mean ± SD 118.0 ± 15.3 112.0 ± 14.3 96 ± 22.6 0.0007 0.03 
24m MSEL NVDQd Mean ± SD 110.1 ± 15.0 107.0 ± 11.9 97 ± 22.6 0.02 0.14 
24m ADOS severity scoree Mean ± SD 1.61 ± 0.86 1.91 ± 1.13 5.25 ± 2.47 0.0001 0.003 
Participant EEG data included in analysis, n (%) 
 3 months 9 (15) 15 (29) 7 (33)     
 6 months 44 (76) 30 (59) 13 (62)     
 9 months 48 (83) 37 (73) 15 (71)     
 12 months 52 (90) 33 (65) 19 (91)     
 18 months 37 (64) 32 (62) 14 (67)     
 24 months 44 (76) 39 (77) 14 (67)     

Note. ASD = autism spectrum disorder; LR = low-risk without ASD; HR-NoASD = high-risk without ASD; HR-ASD = high-risk with ASD; ADOS = Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.

a

HR = HR-NoASD + HR-ASD; n = 72.

b

Fisher exact.

c

One-way ANOVA.

d

One-way ANOVA with parental education as covariate.

e

Kruskal-Wallis.

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