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Table 2.
Overview of Simulation Sickness Mitigation Techniques and Associated Simulation Sickness Induced Factors Divided into Three Major Groups
FactorsMitigation techniqueDescriptionN (f/m)Application typeFindingsReference
INDIVIDUAL Hyoscine An anti-motion sickness medication which is used for the prevention of travel sickness. 39 Exploring corridor with several rooms Hyoscine had a significant effect on reducing the nauseous effect of simulation sickness in an immersive VR environment. Regan (1995) 
 Ginger A plant root which is widely used as a spice and a home remedy. 18 (8/10) Nausea assessment induced by circular vection Ginger sufficiently reduced the severity of nausea, delayed the nausea outbreak and shortened the recovery time. Lien et al. (2003) 
 Adaptation The process of gradually presenting a new environment to the user using scheduled repeated sessions. 30 Exploring corridor with several rooms Significantly decreased nausea from the first immersion to the fourth. No statistically significant differences with SSQ. Regan (1995) 
   95 (56/39) Driving simulation A single brief exposure followed by a day with no exposure reduced simulation sickness symptoms. Domeyer et al. (2013) 
 Passive restraint Users' upper body is fixed to the backrest of the driving seat using elastic straps. 37 (25/12) Driving simulation Passive restraint reduced simulation sickness during video driving game. Keshavarz et al. (2017) 
SYSTEM Pleasant music Music which is perceived as pleasant by the user. 93 (50/43) Watching video of a bicycle ride The pleasant music alleviated simulation sickness. In the study relaxing music was played as pleasant music. Keshavarz & Hecht (2014) 
 Pleasant odor Odor which is perceived as agreeable by the user. 62 (47/15) Watching video of a bicycle ride The participants reported less simulation sickness during the experiment when the pleasant odor was noticed. The smell of roses was used as a pleasant odor. Keshavarz et al. (2015) 
 Fresh air Continuous airflow. 82 (43/39) Watching video of a bicycle ride The SSQ Nausea subscale, the SSQ Oculomotor subscale, and the SSQ total score were reduced. D'Amour et al. (2017) 
 Motion cues Motion cues provided by a motion platform which moves the user's body according to the displayed visual stimulation. 117 (58/59) Driving simulation Simulation sickness was significantly lower with the dynamic driving simulator. Curry et al. (2002) 
   20 (2/18) Driving simulation The simulation sickness symptoms nausea, dizziness, and eye strain were significantly reduced with the dynamic driving simulator. Aykent et al. (2014) 
SOFTWARE Dynamic FOV Dynamically change of user's FOV without noticeable effect by the user during the exploration of the virtual environment. 30 (11/19) Villa exploration The dynamic FOV modification reduced the experienced discomfort and extended the time spent in the virtual environment. Fernandes & Feiner (2016) 
 Visual assets Addition of visual assets such as artificial intelligent vehicles and pedestrians. 72 (18/54) Driving simulation The addition of visual assets significantly reduced simulation sickness induced by VR driving simulation. Ihemedu-Steinke et al. (2017) 
 Virtual nose An integrated image of human nose displayed in the HMD. 41 Roller-coaster and villa exploration Users explored the “Tuscany Villa” application around 90 seconds longer and played a roller-coaster game two seconds longer with the addition of the virtual nose. Whittinghill & Case (2015) 
 Independent visual background A visual scene component which provides a reference point of visual motion cues. 11 (7/4) Driving simulation The independent visual background reduced simulation sickness in a driving simulator. Duh et al. (2004) 
 Virtual hand-eye coordination task A virtual peg-in-hole game where the participant should insert the pegs into the straw-like holes from back to front. This technique is used after the user gets sick. 21 (9/12) Custom made an obstacle course The results reported that doing a coordination task after the user felt a discomfort significantly reduced the experienced discomfort. Curtis et al. (2015) 
FactorsMitigation techniqueDescriptionN (f/m)Application typeFindingsReference
INDIVIDUAL Hyoscine An anti-motion sickness medication which is used for the prevention of travel sickness. 39 Exploring corridor with several rooms Hyoscine had a significant effect on reducing the nauseous effect of simulation sickness in an immersive VR environment. Regan (1995) 
 Ginger A plant root which is widely used as a spice and a home remedy. 18 (8/10) Nausea assessment induced by circular vection Ginger sufficiently reduced the severity of nausea, delayed the nausea outbreak and shortened the recovery time. Lien et al. (2003) 
 Adaptation The process of gradually presenting a new environment to the user using scheduled repeated sessions. 30 Exploring corridor with several rooms Significantly decreased nausea from the first immersion to the fourth. No statistically significant differences with SSQ. Regan (1995) 
   95 (56/39) Driving simulation A single brief exposure followed by a day with no exposure reduced simulation sickness symptoms. Domeyer et al. (2013) 
 Passive restraint Users' upper body is fixed to the backrest of the driving seat using elastic straps. 37 (25/12) Driving simulation Passive restraint reduced simulation sickness during video driving game. Keshavarz et al. (2017) 
SYSTEM Pleasant music Music which is perceived as pleasant by the user. 93 (50/43) Watching video of a bicycle ride The pleasant music alleviated simulation sickness. In the study relaxing music was played as pleasant music. Keshavarz & Hecht (2014) 
 Pleasant odor Odor which is perceived as agreeable by the user. 62 (47/15) Watching video of a bicycle ride The participants reported less simulation sickness during the experiment when the pleasant odor was noticed. The smell of roses was used as a pleasant odor. Keshavarz et al. (2015) 
 Fresh air Continuous airflow. 82 (43/39) Watching video of a bicycle ride The SSQ Nausea subscale, the SSQ Oculomotor subscale, and the SSQ total score were reduced. D'Amour et al. (2017) 
 Motion cues Motion cues provided by a motion platform which moves the user's body according to the displayed visual stimulation. 117 (58/59) Driving simulation Simulation sickness was significantly lower with the dynamic driving simulator. Curry et al. (2002) 
   20 (2/18) Driving simulation The simulation sickness symptoms nausea, dizziness, and eye strain were significantly reduced with the dynamic driving simulator. Aykent et al. (2014) 
SOFTWARE Dynamic FOV Dynamically change of user's FOV without noticeable effect by the user during the exploration of the virtual environment. 30 (11/19) Villa exploration The dynamic FOV modification reduced the experienced discomfort and extended the time spent in the virtual environment. Fernandes & Feiner (2016) 
 Visual assets Addition of visual assets such as artificial intelligent vehicles and pedestrians. 72 (18/54) Driving simulation The addition of visual assets significantly reduced simulation sickness induced by VR driving simulation. Ihemedu-Steinke et al. (2017) 
 Virtual nose An integrated image of human nose displayed in the HMD. 41 Roller-coaster and villa exploration Users explored the “Tuscany Villa” application around 90 seconds longer and played a roller-coaster game two seconds longer with the addition of the virtual nose. Whittinghill & Case (2015) 
 Independent visual background A visual scene component which provides a reference point of visual motion cues. 11 (7/4) Driving simulation The independent visual background reduced simulation sickness in a driving simulator. Duh et al. (2004) 
 Virtual hand-eye coordination task A virtual peg-in-hole game where the participant should insert the pegs into the straw-like holes from back to front. This technique is used after the user gets sick. 21 (9/12) Custom made an obstacle course The results reported that doing a coordination task after the user felt a discomfort significantly reduced the experienced discomfort. Curtis et al. (2015) 

The type of application, the number (N) and the gender (f = female and m = male) of the subjects are mentioned.

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