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Table A1. 
Examples and key phrases per dimension state
DimensionStateExampleKey phrases
A: The discovery is driven by a question, or by a research object A1: Driven by question 2006 Cloaking Technology 10.1126/science.1126493 “This study develops a general recipe for the design of media that create perfect invisibility within the accuracy of geometrical optics” “It has been a long-standing question whether […]”; “[…] remains largely unknown”; “We hypothesize that […]”; “We do not understand the working of […]” 
A0: Driven by research object 2008 Seeing Exoplanets 10.1126/science.1166585 “High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799 […].” “We report the discovery of […]”; “The discovery of […] sheds new light upon […]” 
B: The discovery introduces a new question/research object, or contributes to a known question/research object B1: New New question 2009 Live Long and Prosper 10.1038/nature08221 “Inhibition of the TOR signalling pathway by genetic or pharmacological intervention extends lifespan in invertebrates, […]. However, whether inhibition of mTOR signalling can extend life in a mammalian species was unknown.” “We raise the question whether […]”; “Since we know […] and […], it follows logically to ask […]”, “we hypothesize that […]” 
New research object 2002 The Tournai Fossil 10.1038/nature.00879 “Here we report the discovery of six hominid specimens from Chad, central Africa.” “We report the discovery of […]”; “On [date] we have observed…” 
B0: Known Known question 2001 Carbon Consensus 10.1126/science.1057320 “Despite widespread consensus about the existence of a terrestrial carbon sink […], the size, spatial distribution, and cause of the sink remain uncertain (refs).” “Earlier research has raised the question whether […]”; “It has been a long-standing question whether […]” 
Known research object 2006 Tiktaalik Fossil Fish 10.1038/nature04637 “Here we describe the pectoral appendage of a member of the sister group of tetrapods, Tiktaalik roseae (reported elsewhere, red.), which is morphologically and functionally transitional between a fin and a limb.” “The discovery of […], by [ref], provides us with new insights into […]” 
C: The question/research object is against, in line with state-of-the-art literature C1: Against literature 2000 New Cells for Old 10.1126/science.288.5471.1660 “The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived. […] We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can […] give rise to cells of all germ layers.” “[…] which is against the theory of […]”, “There are two competing theories, and we present evidence against one in support of the other” 
C0: In line with literature 2006 Shrinking Ice 10.1029/2006GL026369 “We estimate mass trends over Antarctica using gravity variations […], similar to a recent estimate of ice mass loss from satellite altimetry and remote sensing data.” “[…] which confirms the theory of […]”; “[…] so that we can extend the model introduced by […]” 
DimensionStateExampleKey phrases
A: The discovery is driven by a question, or by a research object A1: Driven by question 2006 Cloaking Technology 10.1126/science.1126493 “This study develops a general recipe for the design of media that create perfect invisibility within the accuracy of geometrical optics” “It has been a long-standing question whether […]”; “[…] remains largely unknown”; “We hypothesize that […]”; “We do not understand the working of […]” 
A0: Driven by research object 2008 Seeing Exoplanets 10.1126/science.1166585 “High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799 […].” “We report the discovery of […]”; “The discovery of […] sheds new light upon […]” 
B: The discovery introduces a new question/research object, or contributes to a known question/research object B1: New New question 2009 Live Long and Prosper 10.1038/nature08221 “Inhibition of the TOR signalling pathway by genetic or pharmacological intervention extends lifespan in invertebrates, […]. However, whether inhibition of mTOR signalling can extend life in a mammalian species was unknown.” “We raise the question whether […]”; “Since we know […] and […], it follows logically to ask […]”, “we hypothesize that […]” 
New research object 2002 The Tournai Fossil 10.1038/nature.00879 “Here we report the discovery of six hominid specimens from Chad, central Africa.” “We report the discovery of […]”; “On [date] we have observed…” 
B0: Known Known question 2001 Carbon Consensus 10.1126/science.1057320 “Despite widespread consensus about the existence of a terrestrial carbon sink […], the size, spatial distribution, and cause of the sink remain uncertain (refs).” “Earlier research has raised the question whether […]”; “It has been a long-standing question whether […]” 
Known research object 2006 Tiktaalik Fossil Fish 10.1038/nature04637 “Here we describe the pectoral appendage of a member of the sister group of tetrapods, Tiktaalik roseae (reported elsewhere, red.), which is morphologically and functionally transitional between a fin and a limb.” “The discovery of […], by [ref], provides us with new insights into […]” 
C: The question/research object is against, in line with state-of-the-art literature C1: Against literature 2000 New Cells for Old 10.1126/science.288.5471.1660 “The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived. […] We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can […] give rise to cells of all germ layers.” “[…] which is against the theory of […]”, “There are two competing theories, and we present evidence against one in support of the other” 
C0: In line with literature 2006 Shrinking Ice 10.1029/2006GL026369 “We estimate mass trends over Antarctica using gravity variations […], similar to a recent estimate of ice mass loss from satellite altimetry and remote sensing data.” “[…] which confirms the theory of […]”; “[…] so that we can extend the model introduced by […]” 

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