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Table 6. 
Regression results from the Total OA Articles hurdle models for Agricultural Sciences, Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Business, and Education, showing the count data component (Total OA articles > 0) and the zero count component (Total OA articles = 0)
 Agricultural SciencesBiological & Biomedical Sci.BusinessEducation
βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.
  Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component 
Gender is Male 0.027   1.027 0.028 0.052 *** 1.054 0.007 0.056   1.058 0.041 0.129 ** 1.138 0.046 
Institution is Public −0.127   0.881 0.068 −0.058 *** 0.943 0.007 −0.256 *** 0.774 0.038 −0.102   0.903 0.058 
Institution is AAU Member 0.077 ** 1.081 0.026 0.125 *** 1.133 0.007 0.428 *** 1.534 0.039 0.065   1.067 0.048 
Years Since Degree −0.002   0.998 0.002 −0.006 *** 0.994 0.000 −0.007 ** 0.993 0.002 0.003   1.003 0.003 
Professorial Rank −0.003   0.997 0.023 0.115 *** 1.121 0.006 0.092 ** 1.096 0.033 −0.052   0.949 0.041 
Has Won Research Grants 0.323 *** 1.381 0.028 0.291 *** 1.337 0.007 0.517 *** 1.677 0.071 0.209 *** 1.233 0.061 
Total Article Count 0.041 *** 1.042 0.001 0.028 *** 1.028 0.000 0.080 *** 1.083 0.003 0.089 *** 1.093 0.004 
Log(θ) 0.876 *** 2.400 0.039 1.483 *** 4.408 0.012 0.265 *** 1.304 0.071 −0.017   0.983 0.093 
Constant 1.036 *** 2.818 0.081 1.456 *** 4.290 0.013 −0.616 *** 0.540 0.080 −0.526 *** 0.591 0.104 
  Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component 
Gender is Male −0.121   0.886 0.115 −0.073   0.930 0.068 −0.020   0.980 0.049 0.204 *** 1.226 0.055 
Institution is Public −0.615   0.541 0.392 −0.019   0.981 0.068 −0.346 *** 0.708 0.049 0.031   1.032 0.073 
Institution is AAU Member 0.031   1.031 0.109 0.344 *** 1.411 0.068 0.470 *** 1.600 0.046 0.050   1.052 0.061 
Years Since Degree 0.005   1.005 0.007 −0.006   0.994 0.003 −0.008 ** 0.992 0.003 0.005   1.005 0.003 
Professorial Rank −0.113   0.893 0.095 −0.059   0.942 0.054 0.127 ** 1.135 0.041 −0.055   0.946 0.048 
Has Won Research Grants 0.270   1.310 0.171 0.835 *** 2.306 0.100 0.985 *** 2.678 0.179 0.154   1.167 0.096 
Total Article Count 0.464 *** 1.590 0.019 0.858 *** 2.360 0.019 0.249 *** 1.282 0.006 0.299 *** 1.349 0.008 
Constant −0.339   0.713 0.426 −0.964 *** 0.382 0.112 −1.652 *** 0.192 0.083 −1.784 *** 0.168 0.104 
Observations 4,860       30,725       11,764       8,317       
Log-likelihood −11,950       −92,020       −14,420       −9,984       
 Agricultural SciencesBiological & Biomedical Sci.BusinessEducation
βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.
  Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component 
Gender is Male 0.027   1.027 0.028 0.052 *** 1.054 0.007 0.056   1.058 0.041 0.129 ** 1.138 0.046 
Institution is Public −0.127   0.881 0.068 −0.058 *** 0.943 0.007 −0.256 *** 0.774 0.038 −0.102   0.903 0.058 
Institution is AAU Member 0.077 ** 1.081 0.026 0.125 *** 1.133 0.007 0.428 *** 1.534 0.039 0.065   1.067 0.048 
Years Since Degree −0.002   0.998 0.002 −0.006 *** 0.994 0.000 −0.007 ** 0.993 0.002 0.003   1.003 0.003 
Professorial Rank −0.003   0.997 0.023 0.115 *** 1.121 0.006 0.092 ** 1.096 0.033 −0.052   0.949 0.041 
Has Won Research Grants 0.323 *** 1.381 0.028 0.291 *** 1.337 0.007 0.517 *** 1.677 0.071 0.209 *** 1.233 0.061 
Total Article Count 0.041 *** 1.042 0.001 0.028 *** 1.028 0.000 0.080 *** 1.083 0.003 0.089 *** 1.093 0.004 
Log(θ) 0.876 *** 2.400 0.039 1.483 *** 4.408 0.012 0.265 *** 1.304 0.071 −0.017   0.983 0.093 
Constant 1.036 *** 2.818 0.081 1.456 *** 4.290 0.013 −0.616 *** 0.540 0.080 −0.526 *** 0.591 0.104 
  Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component 
Gender is Male −0.121   0.886 0.115 −0.073   0.930 0.068 −0.020   0.980 0.049 0.204 *** 1.226 0.055 
Institution is Public −0.615   0.541 0.392 −0.019   0.981 0.068 −0.346 *** 0.708 0.049 0.031   1.032 0.073 
Institution is AAU Member 0.031   1.031 0.109 0.344 *** 1.411 0.068 0.470 *** 1.600 0.046 0.050   1.052 0.061 
Years Since Degree 0.005   1.005 0.007 −0.006   0.994 0.003 −0.008 ** 0.992 0.003 0.005   1.005 0.003 
Professorial Rank −0.113   0.893 0.095 −0.059   0.942 0.054 0.127 ** 1.135 0.041 −0.055   0.946 0.048 
Has Won Research Grants 0.270   1.310 0.171 0.835 *** 2.306 0.100 0.985 *** 2.678 0.179 0.154   1.167 0.096 
Total Article Count 0.464 *** 1.590 0.019 0.858 *** 2.360 0.019 0.249 *** 1.282 0.006 0.299 *** 1.349 0.008 
Constant −0.339   0.713 0.426 −0.964 *** 0.382 0.112 −1.652 *** 0.192 0.083 −1.784 *** 0.168 0.104 
Observations 4,860       30,725       11,764       8,317       
Log-likelihood −11,950       −92,020       −14,420       −9,984       

* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

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