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Table 7. 
Regression results from the Total OA Articles hurdle models for Engineering, Family, Consumer, and Human Sciences, Health Professions Sciences, and Humanities, showing the count data component (Total OA articles > 0) and the zero count component (Total OA articles = 0)
 EngineeringFam., Cons., & Hum. Sci.Health Professions Sci.Humanities
βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.
  Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component 
Gender is Male −0.032   0.969 0.017 −0.047   0.954 0.025 0.132 *** 1.141 0.015 0.082   1.085 0.054 
Institution is Public −0.180 *** 0.835 0.015 0.040   1.041 0.033 −0.087 *** 0.916 0.016 0.003   1.003 0.058 
Institution is AAU Member 0.237 *** 1.267 0.014 0.208 *** 1.231 0.025 0.257 *** 1.293 0.015 0.098   1.103 0.056 
Years Since Degree −0.004 *** 0.996 0.001 0.005 ** 1.005 0.002 −0.003 *** 0.997 0.001 −0.001   0.999 0.003 
Professorial Rank −0.015   0.985 0.012 −0.125 *** 0.883 0.022 0.040 ** 1.041 0.013 0.002   1.002 0.049 
Has Won Research Grants 0.333 *** 1.395 0.014 0.496 *** 1.642 0.030 0.343 *** 1.409 0.016 0.390 *** 1.476 0.091 
Total Article Count 0.034 *** 1.034 0.000 0.048 *** 1.049 0.001 0.035 *** 1.035 0.000 0.238 *** 1.268 0.011 
Log(θ) 0.672 *** 1.959 0.019 0.349 *** 1.417 0.037 1.071 *** 2.919 0.023 −2.796 *** 0.061 0.485 
Constant 1.010 *** 2.746 0.028 0.547 *** 1.728 0.050 1.068 *** 2.910 0.026 −3.974 *** 0.019 0.507 
  Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component 
Gender is Male −0.097   0.908 0.055 −0.100 * 0.904 0.050 0.390 *** 1.476 0.064 −0.047   0.954 0.033 
Institution is Public −0.183 *** 0.833 0.050 −0.026   0.974 0.064 0.059   1.061 0.072 0.008   1.008 0.036 
Institution is AAU Member 0.232 *** 1.261 0.043 0.125 * 1.133 0.052 0.384 *** 1.468 0.068 0.300 *** 1.350 0.033 
Years Since Degree −0.014 *** 0.987 0.002 −0.002   0.998 0.003 0.001   1.001 0.003 −0.012 *** 0.988 0.002 
Professorial Rank −0.003   0.997 0.038 −0.022   0.978 0.044 0.029   1.029 0.048 0.041   1.042 0.031 
Has Won Research Grants 0.545 *** 1.725 0.050 0.561 *** 1.752 0.110 0.674 *** 1.962 0.110 0.389 *** 1.475 0.072 
Total Article Count 0.263 *** 1.300 0.005 0.359 *** 1.432 0.007 0.438 *** 1.550 0.010 0.428 *** 1.534 0.006 
Constant −0.540 *** 0.583 0.085 −1.847 *** 0.158 0.093 −1.827 *** 0.161 0.097 −2.596 *** 0.075 0.064 
Observations 22,658       13,609       13,098       34,159       
Log-likelihood −54,880       −21,960       −31,990       −20,370       
 EngineeringFam., Cons., & Hum. Sci.Health Professions Sci.Humanities
βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.βSig.e^βStd. Err.
  Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component Positive Count Component 
Gender is Male −0.032   0.969 0.017 −0.047   0.954 0.025 0.132 *** 1.141 0.015 0.082   1.085 0.054 
Institution is Public −0.180 *** 0.835 0.015 0.040   1.041 0.033 −0.087 *** 0.916 0.016 0.003   1.003 0.058 
Institution is AAU Member 0.237 *** 1.267 0.014 0.208 *** 1.231 0.025 0.257 *** 1.293 0.015 0.098   1.103 0.056 
Years Since Degree −0.004 *** 0.996 0.001 0.005 ** 1.005 0.002 −0.003 *** 0.997 0.001 −0.001   0.999 0.003 
Professorial Rank −0.015   0.985 0.012 −0.125 *** 0.883 0.022 0.040 ** 1.041 0.013 0.002   1.002 0.049 
Has Won Research Grants 0.333 *** 1.395 0.014 0.496 *** 1.642 0.030 0.343 *** 1.409 0.016 0.390 *** 1.476 0.091 
Total Article Count 0.034 *** 1.034 0.000 0.048 *** 1.049 0.001 0.035 *** 1.035 0.000 0.238 *** 1.268 0.011 
Log(θ) 0.672 *** 1.959 0.019 0.349 *** 1.417 0.037 1.071 *** 2.919 0.023 −2.796 *** 0.061 0.485 
Constant 1.010 *** 2.746 0.028 0.547 *** 1.728 0.050 1.068 *** 2.910 0.026 −3.974 *** 0.019 0.507 
  Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component Zero Hurdle Component 
Gender is Male −0.097   0.908 0.055 −0.100 * 0.904 0.050 0.390 *** 1.476 0.064 −0.047   0.954 0.033 
Institution is Public −0.183 *** 0.833 0.050 −0.026   0.974 0.064 0.059   1.061 0.072 0.008   1.008 0.036 
Institution is AAU Member 0.232 *** 1.261 0.043 0.125 * 1.133 0.052 0.384 *** 1.468 0.068 0.300 *** 1.350 0.033 
Years Since Degree −0.014 *** 0.987 0.002 −0.002   0.998 0.003 0.001   1.001 0.003 −0.012 *** 0.988 0.002 
Professorial Rank −0.003   0.997 0.038 −0.022   0.978 0.044 0.029   1.029 0.048 0.041   1.042 0.031 
Has Won Research Grants 0.545 *** 1.725 0.050 0.561 *** 1.752 0.110 0.674 *** 1.962 0.110 0.389 *** 1.475 0.072 
Total Article Count 0.263 *** 1.300 0.005 0.359 *** 1.432 0.007 0.438 *** 1.550 0.010 0.428 *** 1.534 0.006 
Constant −0.540 *** 0.583 0.085 −1.847 *** 0.158 0.093 −1.827 *** 0.161 0.097 −2.596 *** 0.075 0.064 
Observations 22,658       13,609       13,098       34,159       
Log-likelihood −54,880       −21,960       −31,990       −20,370       

* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

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