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Table 3: 
Main results. We group methods into three types. The first group consists of the methods that do not use any contextual word embeddings. The second group consists of the methods that use BERT but do not use any other contextual word embeddings. The third group consists of the methods that use both BERT and FLAIR. “†” indicates the methods using POS tags.
ACE-2005GENIA
MethodPrecision (%)Recall (%)F1 (%)Precision (%)Recall (%)F1 (%)
Katiyar and Cardie (2018) 70.6 70.4 70.5 79.8 68.2 73.6 
Ju et al. (2018)11 74.2 70.3 72.2 78.5 71.3 74.7 
Wang et al. (2018)12 74.5 71.5 73.0 78.0 70.2 73.9 
Wang and Lu (2018) 76.8 72.3 74.5 77.0 73.3 75.1 
Sohrab and Miwa (2018) – – – 93.2 64.0 77.1 
Zheng et al. (2019) – – – 75.9 73.6 74.7 
Fisher and Vlachos (2019) 75.1 74.1 74.6 – – – 
Lin et al. (2019) 76.2 73.6 74.9 75.8 73.9 74.8 
Straková et al. (2019)13 76.35 74.39 75.36 79.60 73.53 76.44 
This work 78.27 ± 0.81 75.44 ± 0.37 76.83 ± 0.36 78.70 ± 0.69 75.74 ± 0.64 77.19 ± 0.10 
 
Fisher and Vlachos (2019) [BERT] 82.7 82.1 82.4 − − − 
Straková et al. (2019) [BERT] 82.58 84.29 83.42 79.92 76.55 78.20 
This work [BERT] 83.30 ± 0.22 84.69 ± 0.37 83.99 ± 0.27 77.46 ± 0.65 76.65 ± 0.58 77.05 ± 0.12 
 
Straková et al. (2019) [BERT+FLAIR] 83.48 85.21 84.33 80.11 76.60 78.31 
This work [BERT+FLAIR] 83.83 ± 0.39 84.87 ± 0.09 84.34 ± 0.20 77.81 ± 0.69 76.94 ± 1.12 77.36 ± 0.26 
ACE-2005GENIA
MethodPrecision (%)Recall (%)F1 (%)Precision (%)Recall (%)F1 (%)
Katiyar and Cardie (2018) 70.6 70.4 70.5 79.8 68.2 73.6 
Ju et al. (2018)11 74.2 70.3 72.2 78.5 71.3 74.7 
Wang et al. (2018)12 74.5 71.5 73.0 78.0 70.2 73.9 
Wang and Lu (2018) 76.8 72.3 74.5 77.0 73.3 75.1 
Sohrab and Miwa (2018) – – – 93.2 64.0 77.1 
Zheng et al. (2019) – – – 75.9 73.6 74.7 
Fisher and Vlachos (2019) 75.1 74.1 74.6 – – – 
Lin et al. (2019) 76.2 73.6 74.9 75.8 73.9 74.8 
Straková et al. (2019)13 76.35 74.39 75.36 79.60 73.53 76.44 
This work 78.27 ± 0.81 75.44 ± 0.37 76.83 ± 0.36 78.70 ± 0.69 75.74 ± 0.64 77.19 ± 0.10 
 
Fisher and Vlachos (2019) [BERT] 82.7 82.1 82.4 − − − 
Straková et al. (2019) [BERT] 82.58 84.29 83.42 79.92 76.55 78.20 
This work [BERT] 83.30 ± 0.22 84.69 ± 0.37 83.99 ± 0.27 77.46 ± 0.65 76.65 ± 0.58 77.05 ± 0.12 
 
Straková et al. (2019) [BERT+FLAIR] 83.48 85.21 84.33 80.11 76.60 78.31 
This work [BERT+FLAIR] 83.83 ± 0.39 84.87 ± 0.09 84.34 ± 0.20 77.81 ± 0.69 76.94 ± 1.12 77.36 ± 0.26 
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