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Table 9: 
Comparison on CoNLL-2003. We group methods into two types. The first group consists of the methods that do not use any contextual word embeddings. The second one consists of the methods that use contextual word embeddings such as BERT and FLAIR. “†” indicates the methods using POS tags. “‡” indicates the methods not designed to extract nested entities.
MethodF1 (%)
Wang and Lu (2018) 90.5 
Straková et al. (2019) 90.77 
This work 91.14 ± 0.04 
 
Lample et al. (2016) 90.94 
Ma and Hovy (2016) 91.21 
Liu et al. (2019) 91.96 ± 0.04 
This work − L&D 90.84 ± 0.10 
 
Devlin et al. (2019) 92.80 
Akbik et al. (2018) 93.09 ± 0.12 
Liu et al. (2019) 93.47 ± 0.03 
Jiang et al. (2019) 93.47 
Baevski et al. (2019) 93.5 
MethodF1 (%)
Wang and Lu (2018) 90.5 
Straková et al. (2019) 90.77 
This work 91.14 ± 0.04 
 
Lample et al. (2016) 90.94 
Ma and Hovy (2016) 91.21 
Liu et al. (2019) 91.96 ± 0.04 
This work − L&D 90.84 ± 0.10 
 
Devlin et al. (2019) 92.80 
Akbik et al. (2018) 93.09 ± 0.12 
Liu et al. (2019) 93.47 ± 0.03 
Jiang et al. (2019) 93.47 
Baevski et al. (2019) 93.5 
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