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Table 1. 
Studies analyzing research article introductions that report whether they present their research purpose and whether they introduce research questions (RQs) and/or hypotheses.
StudyFieldPresent the research purposeSpecify the RQs or hypotheses
Mahzari & Maftoon (2007) N = 200 (100 each language) Medicine English: 93% Persian: 83% English: 0% Persian: 9% 
Tessuto (2015) N = 90 Law English: 28% English: 20% 
Rahimi & Farnia (2017) N = 70 (35 each language) Dentistry English: 71.4% Persian: 91.4% English: 37% Persian: 0% 
Omidi & Farnia (2016) N = 60 (30 each language) Physical education English: 100% Persian: 86.6% English: 73.3% Persian: 23.3% 
Loi & Evans (2010) N = 40 (20 each language) Educational psychology English: 100% Chinese: 80% English: 35% (RQs), 75% (H) Chinese: 10% (RQs), 0% (H) 
Kanoksilapatham (2012) N = 179 Civil engineering (n = 60) Software engineering (n = 60) Biomed. engineering (n = 59) English: 78.3%* English: 81.7%* English: 83%* 
Maswana, Kanamaru, & Tajino (2015) N = 69 Structural engineering (n = 9) Environ. engineering (n = 15) Electrical engineering (n = 21) Chemical engineering (n = 14) Computer science (n = 8) English: 89%* English: 100%* English: 90%* English: 93%* English: 100%* English: 22%** English: 33%** English: 14%** English: 43%** English: 13%** 
Shehzad (2011) N = 56 Computer science English: 98.21% English: 32.14% 
Posteguillo (1999) N = 40 Computer science English: 95% English: 22.5% 
Anthony (1999) N = 12 Software engineering English: 42% English: 0% 
Sheldon (2011) N = 36 (18 each language) Applied linguistics ---- English: 33% Spanish: 5.5% 
Del Saz Rubio (2011) N = 28 Agricultural sciences English: 89.3% English: 14.3% 
Mur Dueñas (2010) N = 24 Business management English: 100% Spanish: 92% English: 100% (H) Spanish: 25% (H) 
Joseph, Lim & Nor (2014) N = 20 Forestry English: 100% English: 50% 
StudyFieldPresent the research purposeSpecify the RQs or hypotheses
Mahzari & Maftoon (2007) N = 200 (100 each language) Medicine English: 93% Persian: 83% English: 0% Persian: 9% 
Tessuto (2015) N = 90 Law English: 28% English: 20% 
Rahimi & Farnia (2017) N = 70 (35 each language) Dentistry English: 71.4% Persian: 91.4% English: 37% Persian: 0% 
Omidi & Farnia (2016) N = 60 (30 each language) Physical education English: 100% Persian: 86.6% English: 73.3% Persian: 23.3% 
Loi & Evans (2010) N = 40 (20 each language) Educational psychology English: 100% Chinese: 80% English: 35% (RQs), 75% (H) Chinese: 10% (RQs), 0% (H) 
Kanoksilapatham (2012) N = 179 Civil engineering (n = 60) Software engineering (n = 60) Biomed. engineering (n = 59) English: 78.3%* English: 81.7%* English: 83%* 
Maswana, Kanamaru, & Tajino (2015) N = 69 Structural engineering (n = 9) Environ. engineering (n = 15) Electrical engineering (n = 21) Chemical engineering (n = 14) Computer science (n = 8) English: 89%* English: 100%* English: 90%* English: 93%* English: 100%* English: 22%** English: 33%** English: 14%** English: 43%** English: 13%** 
Shehzad (2011) N = 56 Computer science English: 98.21% English: 32.14% 
Posteguillo (1999) N = 40 Computer science English: 95% English: 22.5% 
Anthony (1999) N = 12 Software engineering English: 42% English: 0% 
Sheldon (2011) N = 36 (18 each language) Applied linguistics ---- English: 33% Spanish: 5.5% 
Del Saz Rubio (2011) N = 28 Agricultural sciences English: 89.3% English: 14.3% 
Mur Dueñas (2010) N = 24 Business management English: 100% Spanish: 92% English: 100% (H) Spanish: 25% (H) 
Joseph, Lim & Nor (2014) N = 20 Forestry English: 100% English: 50% 
*

Reference to a wide research purposes, without specifying if they are objectives or RQs/hypotheses.

**

Restating RQs in the result section.

Note: Studies that have based their analysis on the Swales’s (1990) CARS model (Anthony, 1999; Posteguillo, 1999; Mahzari & Maftoon, 2007) report the percentage related to “outlining purposes” and “announcing present research.” For these studies, the column “Present the research purpose” reports the higher value. Moreover, for these studies, the value reported in the RQs/hypotheses column refers to the “Question raising” information.

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