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Table 1. 
Values of the ep index calculated from the data reported in Science and Engineering Indicators. Data for the years 2002 and 2012 are in the 2016 report, and data for the years 2004 and 2014 are in the 2018 report.
Research fieldUSAEU
Year
20022004201220142002200420122014
Engineering 0.126 0.138 0.133 0.134 0.096 0.105 0.109 0.102 
Astronomy 0.127 0.119 0.125 0.132 0.102 0.109 0.109 0.107 
Chemistry 0.134 0.131 0.127 0.114 0.093 0.093 0.093 0.091 
Physics 0.128 0.134 0.145 0.143 0.102 0.099 0.113 0.116 
Geosciences 0.118 0.119 0.131 0.130 0.095 0.103 0.109 0.111 
Mathematics 0.121 0.126 0.109 0.112 0.091 0.096 0.095 0.106 
Computer sciences 0.137 0.139 0.142 0.138 0.082 0.082 0.100 0.090 
Agricultural sciences 0.129 0.118 0.127 0.128 0.100 0.106 0.118 0.112 
Biological sciences 0.119 0.119 0.129 0.132 0.095 0.100 0.113 0.111 
Medical sciences 0.127 0.126 0.132 0.135 0.096 0.100 0.117 0.118 
Other life sciences 0.103 0.102 0.108 0.102 0.104 0.104 0.112 0.111 
Psychology 0.115 0.111 0.121 0.110 0.084 0.102 0.096 0.105 
Social sciences 0.120 0.119 0.118 0.119 0.083 0.094 0.100 0.107 
  
Mean 0.123 0.123 0.127 0.125 0.094 0.100 0.106 0.107 
Research fieldUSAEU
Year
20022004201220142002200420122014
Engineering 0.126 0.138 0.133 0.134 0.096 0.105 0.109 0.102 
Astronomy 0.127 0.119 0.125 0.132 0.102 0.109 0.109 0.107 
Chemistry 0.134 0.131 0.127 0.114 0.093 0.093 0.093 0.091 
Physics 0.128 0.134 0.145 0.143 0.102 0.099 0.113 0.116 
Geosciences 0.118 0.119 0.131 0.130 0.095 0.103 0.109 0.111 
Mathematics 0.121 0.126 0.109 0.112 0.091 0.096 0.095 0.106 
Computer sciences 0.137 0.139 0.142 0.138 0.082 0.082 0.100 0.090 
Agricultural sciences 0.129 0.118 0.127 0.128 0.100 0.106 0.118 0.112 
Biological sciences 0.119 0.119 0.129 0.132 0.095 0.100 0.113 0.111 
Medical sciences 0.127 0.126 0.132 0.135 0.096 0.100 0.117 0.118 
Other life sciences 0.103 0.102 0.108 0.102 0.104 0.104 0.112 0.111 
Psychology 0.115 0.111 0.121 0.110 0.084 0.102 0.096 0.105 
Social sciences 0.120 0.119 0.118 0.119 0.083 0.094 0.100 0.107 
  
Mean 0.123 0.123 0.127 0.125 0.094 0.100 0.106 0.107 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2016 and 2018, National Science Board, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Appendix Tables 5-59 and 5-48, respectively. In the ep index, the higher the better.

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