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Table 2.
Estimating the Long-Run Effects of Serfdom
(ln) Equivalent Expenditures per Capita
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Serfs % (1858) −0.373*** −0.431*** −0.379*** −0.677*** −0.694*** −0.644*** 
 (0.117) (0.111) (0.104) (0.185) (0.190) (0.185) 
Distance City in 1600   20.544   −54.487 
   (21.718)   (40.700) 
Distance Provincial Capital   −0.062   −0.055 
   (0.038)   (0.045) 
Household controls ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Linear controls ✓   ✓   
Flexible controls  ✓ ✓  ✓ ✓ 
Fixed effects Country Country Country Province Province Province 
Observations 17,155 17,155 17,155 17,155 17,155 17,155 
R2 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.40 0.41 0.41 
Number of clusters 45 45 45 45 45 45 
δ for β=0 16.126 9.856 2.486 2.772 1.518 1.166 
Lower bound estimates −0.424 −0.552 −0.432 −0.591 −0.639 −0.517 
Conley S.E. 300 km       
Serfs % (1858) [0.118]*** [0.126]*** [0.123]*** [0.196]*** [0.195]*** [0.180]*** 
(ln) Equivalent Expenditures per Capita
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Serfs % (1858) −0.373*** −0.431*** −0.379*** −0.677*** −0.694*** −0.644*** 
 (0.117) (0.111) (0.104) (0.185) (0.190) (0.185) 
Distance City in 1600   20.544   −54.487 
   (21.718)   (40.700) 
Distance Provincial Capital   −0.062   −0.055 
   (0.038)   (0.045) 
Household controls ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Linear controls ✓   ✓   
Flexible controls  ✓ ✓  ✓ ✓ 
Fixed effects Country Country Country Province Province Province 
Observations 17,155 17,155 17,155 17,155 17,155 17,155 
R2 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.40 0.41 0.41 
Number of clusters 45 45 45 45 45 45 
δ for β=0 16.126 9.856 2.486 2.772 1.518 1.166 
Lower bound estimates −0.424 −0.552 −0.432 −0.591 −0.639 −0.517 
Conley S.E. 300 km       
Serfs % (1858) [0.118]*** [0.126]*** [0.123]*** [0.196]*** [0.195]*** [0.180]*** 

The unit of observation is the household. Household controls include the household size, the share of household members aged 0 to 18, the share of household members aged 60 and over, the share of male household members, the religious denomination of the household respondent, and LiTS wave fixed effects. Linear controls include latitude and longitude of the district, the area covered by forest, ruggedness, cereal suitability, growing-season temperature and precipitation, river density, share of podzol soil, the distance to the coast, and the distance to Moscow. Flexible controls include eight dummies for cereal suitability and four dummies for quartiles of growing season temperature, growing-season precipitation, the share of podzol soil, and river density, as well as the remaining linear controls. The restricted model used to compute δ and the lower-bound estimates controls for country/province fixed effects. Standard errors clustered at the province are in parentheses. *p<0.10, **p<0.05, and ***p<0.01.

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