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Table 3.
Heterogeneity in Long-Run Outcomes by Type of Serfdom
(ln) Equivalent Expenditures per CapitaConsumer GoodsSale Farm ProductsLand Cultivation
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Serfs % (1858)   0.166***  0.427***  
   (0.061)  (0.152)  
Corvée % (1858) −0.126*** −0.114***  0.053***  0.097** 
 (0.037) (0.032)  (0.014)  (0.046) 
Quitrent % (1858) −0.073** −0.002  0.018**  0.018 
 (0.034) (0.021)  (0.008)  (0.011) 
Household Serfs % (1858) 0.003 −0.027  −0.001  0.049* 
 (0.042) (0.027)  (0.012)  (0.025) 
H0: Corvée = Quitrent (p-value) 0.20 0.00  0.01  0.09 
Household controls ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Flexible controls ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Distances: City and provincial capital ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Fixed Effects Province Province Province Province Province Province 
Observations 14,736 18,609 13,011 11,196 6,171 5,291 
R2 0.38 0.43 0.08 0.09 0.18 0.19 
Number of clusters 44 44 45 44 38 35 
(ln) Equivalent Expenditures per CapitaConsumer GoodsSale Farm ProductsLand Cultivation
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Serfs % (1858)   0.166***  0.427***  
   (0.061)  (0.152)  
Corvée % (1858) −0.126*** −0.114***  0.053***  0.097** 
 (0.037) (0.032)  (0.014)  (0.046) 
Quitrent % (1858) −0.073** −0.002  0.018**  0.018 
 (0.034) (0.021)  (0.008)  (0.011) 
Household Serfs % (1858) 0.003 −0.027  −0.001  0.049* 
 (0.042) (0.027)  (0.012)  (0.025) 
H0: Corvée = Quitrent (p-value) 0.20 0.00  0.01  0.09 
Household controls ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Flexible controls ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Distances: City and provincial capital ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 
Fixed Effects Province Province Province Province Province Province 
Observations 14,736 18,609 13,011 11,196 6,171 5,291 
R2 0.38 0.43 0.08 0.09 0.18 0.19 
Number of clusters 44 44 45 44 38 35 

The unit of observation is the household. Corvée, Quitrent, and Household Serf shares are standardized (mean = 0, SD = 1). See the appendix for further information. Household controls include the household size, share of household members aged 0 to 18, share of household members aged 60 and over, share of male household members, religious denomination of the household respondent, LiTS Survey Wave fixed effects. Flexible controls include eight dummies for cereal suitability and four dummies for quartiles of growing-season temperature, growing-season precipitation, the share of podzol soil, and river density, as well as the remaining linear controls. Distances are the distance to the nearest city in 1600 and the distance to the provincial capital. Sample sizes vary due to the number of LiTS waves reporting the dependent variables. Standard errors clustered at the province in parentheses. *p<0.10, **p<0.05, and ***p<0.01.

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