Skip to Main Content

Tables 1 to 3 present the results of estimating models (1) and (2) for each of the three policy issues. The specifications in each table differ in terms of the regressors and fixed effects included, or the econometric methodology employed, but all provide strong support for the first prediction of our model. Focusing on the key regressors, we see that the estimated coefficients λ1, λ2, and λ3 match the expected sign and significance. To save on space, in tables 1 to 3 we only report the coefficients of our key variables of interest (see tables 1 to 3 in section C.3 of the online appendix for a longer version of these tables, which includes the coefficients of the auxiliary controls).

Table 1.
The Impact of Election Proximity on Votes on Gun Regulations: Party Differences
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× Democratit 0.071* 0.072* 0.070* 0.085** 0.103** 0.103** 0.099** 
 (0.038) (0.037) (0.037) (0.041) (0.045) (0.043) (0.043) 
Senate3it× Republicanit 0.460*** 0.457*** 0.456*** 0.460*** 0.395*** 0.386*** 0.382*** 
 (0.048) (0.048) (0.049) (0.066) (0.110) (0.117) (0.117) 
Senate12it× Republicanit 0.430*** 0.429*** 0.429*** 0.434*** 0.363*** 0.359*** 0.356*** 
 (0.044) (0.045) (0.045) (0.063) (0.110) (0.116) (0.116) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 
R2 0.591 0.594 0.645 0.694 0.218 0.226 0.341 
Test Senate3it× Republicanit= 0.101 0.134 0.136 0.324 0.158 0.254 0.254 
Senate12it× Republicanit (p-value)        
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× Democratit 0.071* 0.072* 0.070* 0.085** 0.103** 0.103** 0.099** 
 (0.038) (0.037) (0.037) (0.041) (0.045) (0.043) (0.043) 
Senate3it× Republicanit 0.460*** 0.457*** 0.456*** 0.460*** 0.395*** 0.386*** 0.382*** 
 (0.048) (0.048) (0.049) (0.066) (0.110) (0.117) (0.117) 
Senate12it× Republicanit 0.430*** 0.429*** 0.429*** 0.434*** 0.363*** 0.359*** 0.356*** 
 (0.044) (0.045) (0.045) (0.063) (0.110) (0.116) (0.116) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 1,460 
R2 0.591 0.594 0.645 0.694 0.218 0.226 0.341 
Test Senate3it× Republicanit= 0.101 0.134 0.136 0.324 0.158 0.254 0.254 
Senate12it× Republicanit (p-value)        

The table reports coefficients of a linear probability model. Robust standard errors in parentheses, adjusted for clustering at the state level in columns 1–4 and senator level in columns 5–7. The dependent variable Voteijvt is coded as 1 when senator i from state j voted pro-gun on vote v in year t. All specifications include senator controls. The sample covers the period 1994–2012. The last row reports the p-value of the test. ***, ** and * indicate statistical significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%.

Table 2.
The Impact of Election Proximity on Votes on Environmental Regulations: Party Differences
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× Democratit −0.004 −0.003 −0.003 −0.004 −0.002 −0.002 −0.002 
 (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.008) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) 
Senate3it× Republicanit −0.366*** −0.370*** −0.370*** −0.374*** −0.246*** −0.243*** −0.245*** 
 (0.023) (0.023) (0.023) (0.027) (0.062) (0.064) (0.063) 
Senate12it× Republicanit −0.388*** −0.391*** −0.392*** −0.391*** −0.260*** −0.256*** −0.259*** 
 (0.023) (0.023) (0.023) (0.028) (0.061) (0.064) (0.063) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 
R2 0.360 0.361 0.423 0.437 0.022 0.022 0.125 
Test Senate3it× Republicanit= 0.007 0.009 0.009 0.074 0.086 0.088 0.074 
Senate12it× Republicanit (p-value)        
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× Democratit −0.004 −0.003 −0.003 −0.004 −0.002 −0.002 −0.002 
 (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.008) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) 
Senate3it× Republicanit −0.366*** −0.370*** −0.370*** −0.374*** −0.246*** −0.243*** −0.245*** 
 (0.023) (0.023) (0.023) (0.027) (0.062) (0.064) (0.063) 
Senate12it× Republicanit −0.388*** −0.391*** −0.392*** −0.391*** −0.260*** −0.256*** −0.259*** 
 (0.023) (0.023) (0.023) (0.028) (0.061) (0.064) (0.063) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 37,277 
R2 0.360 0.361 0.423 0.437 0.022 0.022 0.125 
Test Senate3it× Republicanit= 0.007 0.009 0.009 0.074 0.086 0.088 0.074 
Senate12it× Republicanit (p-value)        

The table reports coefficients of a linear probability model. Robust standard errors in parentheses, adjusted for clustering at the state level in columns 1–4 and senator level in columns 5–7. The dependent variable Voteijvt is coded as 1 when senator i from state j voted pro-environment on vote v in year t. All specifications include senator controls. The sample covers the period 1971–2012. The last row reports the p-value of the test. ***, ** and * indicate statistical significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%.

Table 3.
The Impact of Election Proximity on Votes on Reproductive Rights: Party Differences
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× Democratit −0.030 −0.030 −0.030 −0.033 0.002 0.002 0.002 
 (0.021) (0.021) (0.021) (0.025) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) 
Senate3it× Republicanit −0.735*** −0.737*** −0.737*** −0.743*** −0.055 −0.055 −0.059 
 (0.053) (0.051) (0.052) (0.063) (0.064) (0.064) (0.068) 
Senate12it× Republicanit −0.737*** −0.738*** −0.738*** −0.738*** −0.049 −0.049 −0.052 
 (0.051) (0.050) (0.051) (0.060) (0.058) (0.058) (0.062) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 
R2 0.730 0.731 0.747 0.770 0.020 0.020 0.098 
Test Senate3it× Republicanit= 0.888 0.939 0.957 0.721 0.574 0.574 0.559 
Senate12it× Republicanit (p-value)        
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× Democratit −0.030 −0.030 −0.030 −0.033 0.002 0.002 0.002 
 (0.021) (0.021) (0.021) (0.025) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) 
Senate3it× Republicanit −0.735*** −0.737*** −0.737*** −0.743*** −0.055 −0.055 −0.059 
 (0.053) (0.051) (0.052) (0.063) (0.064) (0.064) (0.068) 
Senate12it× Republicanit −0.737*** −0.738*** −0.738*** −0.738*** −0.049 −0.049 −0.052 
 (0.051) (0.050) (0.051) (0.060) (0.058) (0.058) (0.062) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 4,995 
R2 0.730 0.731 0.747 0.770 0.020 0.020 0.098 
Test Senate3it× Republicanit= 0.888 0.939 0.957 0.721 0.574 0.574 0.559 
Senate12it× Republicanit (p-value)        

The table reports coefficients of a linear probability model. Robust standard errors in parentheses, adjusted for clustering at the state level in columns 1–4 and senator level in columns 5–7. The dependent variable Voteijvt is coded as 1 when senator i from state j voted pro-choice on vote v in year t. All specifications include senator controls. The sample covers the period 1997–2012. The last row reports the p-value of the test. ***, ** and * indicate statistical significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal