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Table 6.
The Impact of Election Proximity on Democrats Voting on Gun Regulations: Safe Seat Senators
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× No Safe Seatit 0.091** 0.087** 0.087** 0.099** 0.122** 0.121** 0.120** 
 (0.042) (0.042) (0.042) (0.041) (0.051) (0.049) (0.049) 
Senate3it× Safe Seatit 0.068 0.087 0.085 0.207 0.022 0.052 0.049 
 (0.092) (0.091) (0.091) (0.187) (0.093) (0.090) (0.090) 
Senate12it× Safe Seatit 0.052 0.045 0.042 0.204 −0.009 0.030 0.026 
 (0.076) (0.072) (0.071) (0.133) (0.098) (0.093) (0.093) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 
R2 0.519 0.528 0.546 0.728 0.286 0.314 0.344 
Test Senate3it× Safe Seatit= 0.854 0.653 0.635 0.988 0.653 0.766 0.755 
Senate12it× Safe Seatit (p-value)        
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Senate3it× No Safe Seatit 0.091** 0.087** 0.087** 0.099** 0.122** 0.121** 0.120** 
 (0.042) (0.042) (0.042) (0.041) (0.051) (0.049) (0.049) 
Senate3it× Safe Seatit 0.068 0.087 0.085 0.207 0.022 0.052 0.049 
 (0.092) (0.091) (0.091) (0.187) (0.093) (0.090) (0.090) 
Senate12it× Safe Seatit 0.052 0.045 0.042 0.204 −0.009 0.030 0.026 
 (0.076) (0.072) (0.071) (0.133) (0.098) (0.093) (0.093) 
State controls no yes yes yes no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no yes yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes yes no no no 
Vote dummies no no yes no no no yes 
State × Year dummies no no no yes no no no 
Senator dummies no no no no yes yes yes 
Observations 704 704 704 704 704 704 704 
R2 0.519 0.528 0.546 0.728 0.286 0.314 0.344 
Test Senate3it× Safe Seatit= 0.854 0.653 0.635 0.988 0.653 0.766 0.755 
Senate12it× Safe Seatit (p-value)        

The table reports coefficients of a linear probability model. Robust standard errors in parentheses, adjusted for clustering at the state level in columns 1–4 and senator level in columns 5–7. The dependent variable Voteijvt is coded as 1 when senator i from state j voted pro-gun on vote v in year t. All specifications include senator controls. The sample covers the period 1994–2012. The last row reports the p-value of the test. ***, ** and * indicate statistical significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%.

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