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Table 8.
The Impact of Election Proximity on Democrats Voting on Gun Regulations, by Size of the Pro-Gun Minority
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)
Senate3it −0.137 −0.135 −0.134 
 (0.138) (0.141) (0.142) 
Senate3it× Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt 0.047* 0.049* 0.049* 
 (0.024) (0.025) (0.025) 
Senate3it× Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt2 −0.002** −0.002** −0.002** 
 (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) 
Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt 0.129** 0.141** 0.142** 
 (0.061) (0.062) (0.062) 
Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt2 −0.003** −0.004** −0.004** 
 (0.001) (0.002) (0.002) 
State controls no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes 
Vote dummies no no yes 
Observations 725 725 725 
R2 0.529 0.540 0.557 
Joint test for Senate3it and interactions (p-value) 0.033 0.022 0.022 
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)
Senate3it −0.137 −0.135 −0.134 
 (0.138) (0.141) (0.142) 
Senate3it× Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt 0.047* 0.049* 0.049* 
 (0.024) (0.025) (0.025) 
Senate3it× Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt2 −0.002** −0.002** −0.002** 
 (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) 
Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt 0.129** 0.141** 0.142** 
 (0.061) (0.062) (0.062) 
Gun Magazine Subscriptionsjt2 −0.003** −0.004** −0.004** 
 (0.001) (0.002) (0.002) 
State controls no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes 
Vote dummies no no yes 
Observations 725 725 725 
R2 0.529 0.540 0.557 
Joint test for Senate3it and interactions (p-value) 0.033 0.022 0.022 

The table reports coefficients of a linear probability model. Robust standard errors in parentheses, adjusted for clustering at the state level. The dependent variable Voteijvt is coded as 1 when senator i from state j voted pro-gun on vote v in year t. All specifications include senator controls. The sample covers the period 1994–2012. The last row reports the p-value of the test. ***, ** and * indicate statistical significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%.

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