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The results are reported in table 9. In line with prediction 3 of our model, the coefficient for the linear interaction term is positive and significant, while the coefficient for the square term is negative and significant. The test at the bottom of the table indicates that Senate3it and the two interaction terms are jointly significant at 1%.

Table 9.
The Impact of Election Proximity on Republicans Voting on Environmental Regulations, by Size of the Green Minority
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)
Senate3it −0.061* −0.060* −0.065** 
 (0.030) (0.031) (0.032) 
Senate3it× Membership in Green Organizationsj 0.158** 0.156** 0.171** 
 (0.062) (0.064) (0.065) 
Senate3it× Membership in Green Organizationsj2 −0.060** −0.059** −0.067** 
 (0.025) (0.027) (0.027) 
State controls no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes 
Vote dummies no no yes 
Observations 16,855 16,855 16,855 
R2 0.260 0.262 0.396 
Joint test for Senate3it and interactions (p-value) 0.013 0.016 0.013 
Voteijvt
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)
Senate3it −0.061* −0.060* −0.065** 
 (0.030) (0.031) (0.032) 
Senate3it× Membership in Green Organizationsj 0.158** 0.156** 0.171** 
 (0.062) (0.064) (0.065) 
Senate3it× Membership in Green Organizationsj2 −0.060** −0.059** −0.067** 
 (0.025) (0.027) (0.027) 
State controls no yes yes 
Year dummies yes yes no 
State dummies yes yes yes 
Vote dummies no no yes 
Observations 16,855 16,855 16,855 
R2 0.260 0.262 0.396 
Joint test for Senate3it and interactions (p-value) 0.013 0.016 0.013 

The table reports coefficients of a linear probability model. Robust standard errors in parentheses, adjusted for clustering at the state level. The dependent variable Voteijvt is coded as 1 when senator i from state j voted pro-environment on vote v in year t. All specifications include senator controls. The sample covers the period 1971–2012. The last row reports the p-value of the test. ***, ** and * indicate statistical significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%.

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