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Table 1.
External Validity: Study Participants versus Nonparticipants
Participating Schools
Study ParticipantsParticipating Classes — Nonparticipating Classes Difference (SE)Participating Schools — Nonparticipating Schools Difference (SE)
Student characteristics    
Proportion male 0.511 −0.003 −0.001 
  (0.005) (0.003) 
Proportion FRPL-eligible 0.577 0.031** −0.011 
  (0.014) (0.043) 
Proportion with IEP 0.102 −0.036*** 0.008 
  (0.013) (0.005) 
Proportion designated LEP 0.264 −0.007 0.007 
  (0.004) (0.034) 
Average prior score: Math 0.077 0.044 0.009 
  (0.041) (0.060) 
Average prior score: ELA 0.057 0.052 0.004 
  (0.035) (0.065) 
Proportion African American 0.186 0.000 −0.008 
  (0.004) (0.016) 
Proportion Asian 0.063 −0.003 0.006 
  (0.003) (0.014) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.385 −0.006 −0.008 
  (0.005) (0.040) 
Proportion Native American 0.007 0.000 0.000 
  (0.000) (0.001) 
Proportion Pacific Islander 0.001 0.000 −0.000 
  (0.000) (0.001) 
Proportion white 0.339 0.009 0.009 
  (0.005) (0.029) 
Proportion Multiple/Other Race 0.019 −0.000 0.001 
  (0.001) (0.001) 
N (Students) 22,950   
Teacher characteristics    
Proportion male 0.291 −0.026 −0.025 
  (0.041) (0.022) 
Average years of teaching experience 10.330 −0.107 0.148 
  (0.502) (0.176) 
Proportion African American 0.087 −0.022 −0.002 
  (0.018) (0.020) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.180 0.000 0.013 
  (0.025) (0.038) 
Proportion white 0.669 0.021 −0.006 
  (0.030) (0.036) 
N (Teachers) 426   
Participating Schools
Study ParticipantsParticipating Classes — Nonparticipating Classes Difference (SE)Participating Schools — Nonparticipating Schools Difference (SE)
Student characteristics    
Proportion male 0.511 −0.003 −0.001 
  (0.005) (0.003) 
Proportion FRPL-eligible 0.577 0.031** −0.011 
  (0.014) (0.043) 
Proportion with IEP 0.102 −0.036*** 0.008 
  (0.013) (0.005) 
Proportion designated LEP 0.264 −0.007 0.007 
  (0.004) (0.034) 
Average prior score: Math 0.077 0.044 0.009 
  (0.041) (0.060) 
Average prior score: ELA 0.057 0.052 0.004 
  (0.035) (0.065) 
Proportion African American 0.186 0.000 −0.008 
  (0.004) (0.016) 
Proportion Asian 0.063 −0.003 0.006 
  (0.003) (0.014) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.385 −0.006 −0.008 
  (0.005) (0.040) 
Proportion Native American 0.007 0.000 0.000 
  (0.000) (0.001) 
Proportion Pacific Islander 0.001 0.000 −0.000 
  (0.000) (0.001) 
Proportion white 0.339 0.009 0.009 
  (0.005) (0.029) 
Proportion Multiple/Other Race 0.019 −0.000 0.001 
  (0.001) (0.001) 
N (Students) 22,950   
Teacher characteristics    
Proportion male 0.291 −0.026 −0.025 
  (0.041) (0.022) 
Average years of teaching experience 10.330 −0.107 0.148 
  (0.502) (0.176) 
Proportion African American 0.087 −0.022 −0.002 
  (0.018) (0.020) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.180 0.000 0.013 
  (0.025) (0.038) 
Proportion white 0.669 0.021 −0.006 
  (0.030) (0.036) 
N (Teachers) 426   

Notes: The student sample excludes special education classes (defined as classes where 75 percent or more of students have an individualized education plan, or IEP) taught by non-project teachers. The sample also excludes students in treatment teachers' classes who did not have administrative data (N = 87; see table 3 for description of missing data). Prior scores are reported in standard deviation units, after standardizing scores by state, grade, and subject. The difference between treatment teachers and non-sample teachers in participating schools (column 2) was estimated controlling for school fixed effects. The difference between students and teachers in participating and nonparticipating schools (column 3) was estimated after controlling for district fixed effects. In all cases, standard errors (SE) are reported in parentheses, and allow for clustering within a school. Teacher gender and race were not provided for nonsample teachers or schools in the Georgia district and one of the Colorado districts, so those sites are excluded for those rows. All sites provided experience for all teachers. FRPL = free or reduced-price lunch; LEP = limited English proficiency; ELA = English language arts.

**Significant at the 95% level; ***significant at the 99% level.

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