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Table 2.
Internal Validity: Difference between Treatment and Control Groups at Baseline
Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)
Administrator characteristics   
Proportion male 0.397 0.113 
  (0.083) 
Years as administrator 10.302 −1.076 
  (1.248) 
Proportion African American 0.283 −0.056 
  (0.067) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.200 −0.007 
  (0.056) 
Proportion white 0.483 0.079 
  (0.072) 
N (Administrators)  129 
Fisher Pearson Wald test  p = 0.826 
Teacher characteristics   
Proportion male 0.234 −0.023 
  (0.039) 
Years as teacher 11.709 0.450 
  (0.697) 
Proportion African American 0.175 0.066 
  (0.044) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.144 −0.013 
  (0.034) 
Proportion white 0.593 −0.023 
  (0.046) 
N (Teachers)  426 
Fisher Pearson Wald test  p = 0.697 
Student characteristics   
Proportion male 0.509 −0.007 
  (0.010) 
Proportion FRPL-eligible 0.590 0.035 
  (0.034) 
Proportion with IEP 0.110 0.006 
  (0.016) 
Proportion designated LEP 0.280 0.027 
  (0.021) 
Average prior score: Math 0.086 −0.016 
  (0.073) 
Average prior score: ELA 0.079 0.013 
  (0.063) 
Proportion African American 0.164 0.005 
  (0.027) 
Proportion Asian 0.049 −0.030** 
  (0.013) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.401 0.016 
  (0.023) 
Proportion Native American 0.007 −0.001 
  (0.003) 
Proportion Pacific Islander 0.001 −0.000 
  (0.001) 
Proportion white 0.358 0.008 
  (0.028) 
Proportion Multiple/Other race 0.020 0.003 
  (0.003) 
N (Students) 12,759 22,950 
Fisher Pearson Wald test  p = 0.305 
Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)
Administrator characteristics   
Proportion male 0.397 0.113 
  (0.083) 
Years as administrator 10.302 −1.076 
  (1.248) 
Proportion African American 0.283 −0.056 
  (0.067) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.200 −0.007 
  (0.056) 
Proportion white 0.483 0.079 
  (0.072) 
N (Administrators)  129 
Fisher Pearson Wald test  p = 0.826 
Teacher characteristics   
Proportion male 0.234 −0.023 
  (0.039) 
Years as teacher 11.709 0.450 
  (0.697) 
Proportion African American 0.175 0.066 
  (0.044) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.144 −0.013 
  (0.034) 
Proportion white 0.593 −0.023 
  (0.046) 
N (Teachers)  426 
Fisher Pearson Wald test  p = 0.697 
Student characteristics   
Proportion male 0.509 −0.007 
  (0.010) 
Proportion FRPL-eligible 0.590 0.035 
  (0.034) 
Proportion with IEP 0.110 0.006 
  (0.016) 
Proportion designated LEP 0.280 0.027 
  (0.021) 
Average prior score: Math 0.086 −0.016 
  (0.073) 
Average prior score: ELA 0.079 0.013 
  (0.063) 
Proportion African American 0.164 0.005 
  (0.027) 
Proportion Asian 0.049 −0.030** 
  (0.013) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.401 0.016 
  (0.023) 
Proportion Native American 0.007 −0.001 
  (0.003) 
Proportion Pacific Islander 0.001 −0.000 
  (0.001) 
Proportion white 0.358 0.008 
  (0.028) 
Proportion Multiple/Other race 0.020 0.003 
  (0.003) 
N (Students) 12,759 22,950 
Fisher Pearson Wald test  p = 0.305 

Notes: The adjusted difference between control and treatment is the result of a regression of the dependent variable against fixed effects for randomization strata and a treatment indicator. Standard errors (SE) are reported in parentheses, and in the teacher and administrator models they allow for clustering within a school. School characteristics are from the 2012—13 school year, as they were the most recent data available at the time of randomization. FRPL = free or reduced-price lunch; IEP = individualized education plan; LEP = limited English proficiency; ELA = English language arts.

**Significant at the 95% level.

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