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Table 7.
Impacts on Administrator Perceptions of the Observation Process
Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)N (Administrators)
End of year survey    
Thinking about the teachers who were part of the study this year …    
How confident are you that your classroom observation provided an accurate rating of 0.77 −0.06 117 
their teaching? (1 = “quite” or “extremely”)  (0.08)  
Do you believe your post-conference meetings had a positive or negative impact on 0.67 0.03 116 
their subsequent instruction? (1 = “large positive” or “moderately positive”)  (0.08)  
How often were teachers defensive as you discussed your observation notes with 0.66 0.23*** 117 
them? (1 = “never” or “rarely”)  (0.07)  
How often did you and the teacher disagree about what actually happened during the 0.92 0.09** 115 
lesson? (1 = “never” or “rarely”)  (0.04)  
How often did you and the teacher disagree about the appropriate score for the 0.92 0.06 115 
lesson? (1 = “never” or “rarely”)  (0.04)  
How often did the following occur as a result of your classroom observations? (1 = “extremely often” or “quite often”) 
I better understand my teachers’ skills 0.89 −0.10 117 
  (0.07)  
I better understood my teachers’ development areas 0.77 0.02 117 
  (0.08)  
I better understood what students were learning 0.87 −0.20** 117 
  (0.08)  
I gave teachers helpful feedback 0.64 0.07 117 
  (0.09)  
I better understood the classroom challenges at my school 0.85 −0.23*** 117 
  (0.08)  
I helped my teachers reflect on their practice 0.70 0.04 117 
  (0.08)  
Post-conference survey    
During the post-observation conference, how much effort did you put into taking 0.74 0.05 90 
teacher's perspective? (1 = “tremendous amount” or “quite a bit”)  (0.09)  
How would you describe your relationship at present? (1 = “very positive” or 0.96 −0.06 91 
“somewhat positive”)  (0.06)  
How productive did you find the post-observation conference overall? 0.84 −0.13 90 
(1 = “extremely” or “quite”)  (0.09)  
Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)N (Administrators)
End of year survey    
Thinking about the teachers who were part of the study this year …    
How confident are you that your classroom observation provided an accurate rating of 0.77 −0.06 117 
their teaching? (1 = “quite” or “extremely”)  (0.08)  
Do you believe your post-conference meetings had a positive or negative impact on 0.67 0.03 116 
their subsequent instruction? (1 = “large positive” or “moderately positive”)  (0.08)  
How often were teachers defensive as you discussed your observation notes with 0.66 0.23*** 117 
them? (1 = “never” or “rarely”)  (0.07)  
How often did you and the teacher disagree about what actually happened during the 0.92 0.09** 115 
lesson? (1 = “never” or “rarely”)  (0.04)  
How often did you and the teacher disagree about the appropriate score for the 0.92 0.06 115 
lesson? (1 = “never” or “rarely”)  (0.04)  
How often did the following occur as a result of your classroom observations? (1 = “extremely often” or “quite often”) 
I better understand my teachers’ skills 0.89 −0.10 117 
  (0.07)  
I better understood my teachers’ development areas 0.77 0.02 117 
  (0.08)  
I better understood what students were learning 0.87 −0.20** 117 
  (0.08)  
I gave teachers helpful feedback 0.64 0.07 117 
  (0.09)  
I better understood the classroom challenges at my school 0.85 −0.23*** 117 
  (0.08)  
I helped my teachers reflect on their practice 0.70 0.04 117 
  (0.08)  
Post-conference survey    
During the post-observation conference, how much effort did you put into taking 0.74 0.05 90 
teacher's perspective? (1 = “tremendous amount” or “quite a bit”)  (0.09)  
How would you describe your relationship at present? (1 = “very positive” or 0.96 −0.06 91 
“somewhat positive”)  (0.06)  
How productive did you find the post-observation conference overall? 0.84 −0.13 90 
(1 = “extremely” or “quite”)  (0.09)  

Notes: For each comparison, the outcome is a dichotomous indicator for whether the respondent chose one of the top two categories on the Likert scale (e.g., on a 4-point Likert scale for amount learned that ranges from “nothing” to “quite a bit,” the binary variable indicates a response choice of “quite a bit” or “some”; Likert scales ranged across items from 4 points to 7 points). Results are similar when we keep the original scale. The adjusted difference between control and treatment is the result of a regression of the dependent variable against fixed effects for randomization strata, a treatment indicator, and an indicator for whether the school is an elementary or middle school. Standard errors (SE) are reported in parentheses, and allow for clustering within school. A Bonferroni correction for eleven hypothesis tests on the End-of-Year survey changes the significance such that the fourth and eighth results are no longer significant at the 90 percent level. The third and tenth results remain significant at the 95 percent level. Both the Sidak and Holm-Bonferroni corrections yield identical results.

**Significant at the 95% level; ***significant at the 99% level.

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