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Table 10.
Impacts on Student Perceptions of the Classroom Environment
Pooled Year 1Cohort 1 Follow-Up Year
Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)N (Students)N (Teachers)Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)N (Students)N (Teachers)
Average of all items −0.004 0.020 12,862 389 0.008 0.035 3,696 113 
  (0.030)    (0.042)   
Classroom management −0.025 0.037 12,860 389 0.050 0.076 3,695 113 
construct  (0.034)    (0.046)   
Pooled Year 1Cohort 1 Follow-Up Year
Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)N (Students)N (Teachers)Control MeanTreatment — Control Difference (SE)N (Students)N (Teachers)
Average of all items −0.004 0.020 12,862 389 0.008 0.035 3,696 113 
  (0.030)    (0.042)   
Classroom management −0.025 0.037 12,860 389 0.050 0.076 3,695 113 
construct  (0.034)    (0.046)   

Notes: The adjusted difference between control and treatment is the result of a regression of the dependent variable against fixed effects for randomization strata, a treatment indicator, and an indicator for whether the school is an elementary or middle school. Standard errors (SE) are reported in parentheses and allow for clustering within school. Results are similar when controlled for observable student background characteristics; however, the sample size is reduced by roughly one third due to challenge merging student identifiers from survey rosters to those in administrative data.

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