Skip to Main Content
Table 11.
Impacts on Student Test Scores
Pooled Year 1Cohort 1 Follow-Up Year
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 1Model 2Model 3
Combined math and English language arts 
Treatment −0.042 0.003 −0.009 −0.058 0.031 0.015 
 (0.071) (0.025) (0.022) (0.098) (0.033) (0.033) 
Adjusted R2 0.004 0.638 0.644 0.008 0.684 0.687 
N (Teachers) 339 339 339 194 194 194 
N (Students) 20,575 20,575 20,575 11,834 11,834 11,834 
Math only       
Treatment −0.001 0.018 −0.031 −0.041 0.049 0.008 
 (0.077) (0.035) −0.029 (0.109) (0.042) (0.039) 
Adjusted R2 0.005 0.652 0.660 0.011 0.704 0.708 
N (Teachers) 222 222 222 122 122 122 
N (Students) 10,504 10,504 10,504 5,928 5,928 5,928 
English language arts only 
Treatment −0.069 −0.015 −0.032 −0.061 0.017 0.013 
 (0.073) (0.024) (0.024) (0.103) (0.033) (0.034) 
Adjusted R2 0.005 0.631 0.635 0.007 0.675 0.675 
N (Teachers) 232 232 232 124 124 124 
N (Students) 10,071 10,071 10,071 5,906 5,906 5,906 
Pooled Year 1Cohort 1 Follow-Up Year
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 1Model 2Model 3
Combined math and English language arts 
Treatment −0.042 0.003 −0.009 −0.058 0.031 0.015 
 (0.071) (0.025) (0.022) (0.098) (0.033) (0.033) 
Adjusted R2 0.004 0.638 0.644 0.008 0.684 0.687 
N (Teachers) 339 339 339 194 194 194 
N (Students) 20,575 20,575 20,575 11,834 11,834 11,834 
Math only       
Treatment −0.001 0.018 −0.031 −0.041 0.049 0.008 
 (0.077) (0.035) −0.029 (0.109) (0.042) (0.039) 
Adjusted R2 0.005 0.652 0.660 0.011 0.704 0.708 
N (Teachers) 222 222 222 122 122 122 
N (Students) 10,504 10,504 10,504 5,928 5,928 5,928 
English language arts only 
Treatment −0.069 −0.015 −0.032 −0.061 0.017 0.013 
 (0.073) (0.024) (0.024) (0.103) (0.033) (0.034) 
Adjusted R2 0.005 0.631 0.635 0.007 0.675 0.675 
N (Teachers) 232 232 232 124 124 124 
N (Students) 10,071 10,071 10,071 5,906 5,906 5,906 

Notes: The adjusted difference between control and treatment is the result of a regression of the dependent variable against fixed effects for randomization strata, and a treatment indicator. Models 2-3 also include student- and class-level covariates, and Model 3 includes prior teacher value added as a covariate. Student-level covariates include a cubic polynomial in prior-year same-subject test score, an interaction between student grade and prior-year same-subject test score, a linear term for prior-year opposite-subject test score with a dummy for those missing the opposite-subject test, grade-level indicators, gender, seven categories for race/ethnicity, an indicator for free or reduced price lunch eligibility, an indicator for special education status, and an indicator for students with Limited English Proficiency. Class-level covariates include the class-wide average of all student-level covariates, except that prior-year same-subject test score is only included linearly. Teacher value added is the teacher's same-subject value added for the 2012—13 and 2013—14 school years, with a dummy for those missing value added. All covariates were interacted with site and additionally with subject for the combined model. Samples include nontreatment students and teachers in order to increase the precision of estimates for these covariates, and models include an indicator for this group. After controlling for student background characteristics, nontreatment students generally do not perform differently than treatment students on end-of-year tests.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal