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Table A.1.
External Validity: Study Participants versus Nonparticipants across Districts
ColoradoDelaware
Study ParticipantsParticipating — Nonparticipating difference (SE)Study ParticipantsParticipating — Nonparticipating difference (SE)
District characteristics     
Proportion FRPL-eligible 0.412 −0.065 0.497 −0.007 
  (0.074)  (0.108) 
Proportion IEP 0.000 0.000 0.122 −0.002 
  (0.000)  (0.041) 
Proportion LEP 0.070 0.001 0.034 −0.001 
  (0.036)  (0.026) 
Proportion African American 0.006 −0.007 0.364 −0.035 
  (0.011)  (0.120) 
Proportion Asian 0.007 −0.003 0.042 0.013 
  (0.006)  (0.019) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.240 −0.033 0.109 0.013 
  (0.089)  (0.039) 
Proportion Native American 0.062 0.054*** 0.004 −0.001 
  (0.011)  (0.001) 
Proportion Pacific Islander 0.001 −0.001 0.002 0.000 
  (0.002)  (0.001) 
Proportion white 0.657 −0.017 0.456 0.003 
  (0.092)  (0.106) 
Proportion multiple/other race 0.026 0.007 0.023 0.008 
  (0.007)  (0.007) 
Total enrollment 4,991 176 5,200 2,481 
  (5,213)  (1,674) 
Total Teacher FTE 289 18 370 179 
  (286)  (116) 
Student—Teacher ratio 15.762 1.860 13.639 0.419 
  (1.685)  (1.321) 
Share charter 0.000 −0.006 0.500 −0.083 
  (0.031)  (0.198) 
Share urban/suburban 0.167 −0.013 0.500 −0.306* 
  (0.160)  (0.167) 
ColoradoDelaware
Study ParticipantsParticipating — Nonparticipating difference (SE)Study ParticipantsParticipating — Nonparticipating difference (SE)
District characteristics     
Proportion FRPL-eligible 0.412 −0.065 0.497 −0.007 
  (0.074)  (0.108) 
Proportion IEP 0.000 0.000 0.122 −0.002 
  (0.000)  (0.041) 
Proportion LEP 0.070 0.001 0.034 −0.001 
  (0.036)  (0.026) 
Proportion African American 0.006 −0.007 0.364 −0.035 
  (0.011)  (0.120) 
Proportion Asian 0.007 −0.003 0.042 0.013 
  (0.006)  (0.019) 
Proportion Hispanic 0.240 −0.033 0.109 0.013 
  (0.089)  (0.039) 
Proportion Native American 0.062 0.054*** 0.004 −0.001 
  (0.011)  (0.001) 
Proportion Pacific Islander 0.001 −0.001 0.002 0.000 
  (0.002)  (0.001) 
Proportion white 0.657 −0.017 0.456 0.003 
  (0.092)  (0.106) 
Proportion multiple/other race 0.026 0.007 0.023 0.008 
  (0.007)  (0.007) 
Total enrollment 4,991 176 5,200 2,481 
  (5,213)  (1,674) 
Total Teacher FTE 289 18 370 179 
  (286)  (116) 
Student—Teacher ratio 15.762 1.860 13.639 0.419 
  (1.685)  (1.321) 
Share charter 0.000 −0.006 0.500 −0.083 
  (0.031)  (0.198) 
Share urban/suburban 0.167 −0.013 0.500 −0.306* 
  (0.160)  (0.167) 

Notes: The district data are drawn from the U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data, from the year prior to our study (school year 2012—13). Only local school districts and charter agencies are included; supervisory union administrative centers, regional education service agencies, state agencies, and federal agencies are excluded. Means and differences are computed giving each district equal weight. Differences are calculated from a linear regression controlling for treatment status and no other covariates. Standard errors (SE) are reported in parentheses. FRPL = free or reduced-price lunch; IEP = individualized education plan; LEP = limited English proficiency; FTE = full-time equivalent.

***Significant at the 99% level.

Table A.2.
Heterogeneous Impacts on Teacher Retention (Cohort 1)
Main EffectInteraction EffectN (Teachers)
Good prior relationship with administration 
Remain in same teaching assignment (school and grade) 0.042 0.126 299 
 (0.094) (0.110)  
Remain in same school 0.073 0.133 299 
 (0.088) (0.099)  
Remain in same district 0.035 0.153 299 
 (0.091) (0.106)  
High administration baseline rating 
Remain in same teaching assignment (school and grade) 0.002 0.263*** 259 
 (0.080) (0.094)  
Remain in same school 0.101 0.085 259 
 (0.073) (0.088)  
Remain in same district 0.074 0.066 259 
 (0.074) (0.087)  
Ten or more years of experience 
Remain in same teaching assignment (school and grade) 0.143 −0.051 300 
 (0.090) (0.103)  
Remain in same school 0.171** −0.021 300 
 (0.075) (0.085)  
Remain in same district 0.151** −0.028 300 
 (0.074) (0.080)  
Main EffectInteraction EffectN (Teachers)
Good prior relationship with administration 
Remain in same teaching assignment (school and grade) 0.042 0.126 299 
 (0.094) (0.110)  
Remain in same school 0.073 0.133 299 
 (0.088) (0.099)  
Remain in same district 0.035 0.153 299 
 (0.091) (0.106)  
High administration baseline rating 
Remain in same teaching assignment (school and grade) 0.002 0.263*** 259 
 (0.080) (0.094)  
Remain in same school 0.101 0.085 259 
 (0.073) (0.088)  
Remain in same district 0.074 0.066 259 
 (0.074) (0.087)  
Ten or more years of experience 
Remain in same teaching assignment (school and grade) 0.143 −0.051 300 
 (0.090) (0.103)  
Remain in same school 0.171** −0.021 300 
 (0.075) (0.085)  
Remain in same district 0.151** −0.028 300 
 (0.074) (0.080)  

Notes: Our model regresses the dependent variable against fixed effects for randomization strata, an indicator for our mediator of interest (good prior relationship/high baseline rating/ten or more years of experience), a treatment indicator, and the interaction between our mediator and the treatment indicator. Standard errors are reported in parentheses, and allow for clustering within-school. Good prior relationship with administration is defined as answering “Very” or “Quite” to the question “Overall, how much do you enjoy working with your administrator” on the baseline survey. Seventy-five percent of teachers fell into this category. High administration baseline rating is defined as a teacher's administrator answering “top 5%” or “top 25%” to the question “Among all the teachers you have known who taught the same grade/subject, how would you rate the overall quality of instruction provided by this teacher?” on the baseline survey. Fifty-one percent of teachers fell into this category. Years of experience are taken from our baseline survey. Sixty-two percent of teachers reported having ten or more years of experience.

**Significant at the 95% level; ***significant at the 99% level.

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