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Table 2. 

Growth–Poverty Elasticities, 1970–2018

YearHead Count Poverty Rate (%)Change in Head Count Poverty Rate (%)GDP per Capita (LCY, constant price 2010)GDP per Capita (1976 = 100)Change in GDP per Capita (%)Implied Growth Elasticity
1970 60  7,016,451 78.0   
1976 40.1 −33.2 8,992,523 100.0 28.2 −1.18 
1978 33.3 −17.0 9,948,191 110.6 10.6 −1.60 
1980 28.6 −14.1 11,188,870 124.4 12.5 −1.13 
1981 26.9 −5.9 11,796,809 131.2 5.4 −1.09 
1984 21.6 −19.7 12,564,051 139.7 6.5 −3.03 
1987 17.4 −19.4 13,453,897 149.6 7.1 −2.75 
1990 15.1 −13.2 15,522,805 172.6 15.4 −0.86 
1993 13.7 −9.3 17,891,101 199.0 15.3 −0.61 
1996 11.3 −17.5 21,434,872 238.4 19.8 −0.88 
Average      −1.46 
Median      −1.13 
End-to-end, 1996–1976 −71.8   138.4 −0.52 
Year Head Count Poverty Rate (%) Change in Head Count Poverty Rate (%) GDP per Capita (LCY, constant price 2010) GDP per Capita (2000 = 100) Change in GDP per Capita (%) Implied Growth Elasticity 
1996 17.47  21,434,872 110.0   
1998 24.2 38.5 18,946,595 97.2 −11.6 −3.32 
1999 23.43 −3.2 18,831,293 96.6 −0.6 5.23 
2000 19.14 −18.3 19,484,343 100.0 3.5 −5.28 
2001 18.41 −3.8 19,915,014 102.2 2.2 −1.73 
2002 18.2 −1.1 20,523,897 105.3 3.1 −0.37 
2003 17.42 −4.3 21,208,867 108.9 3.3 −1.28 
2004 16.66 −4.4 21,970,090 112.8 3.6 −1.22 
2005 15.97 −4.1 22,903,436 117.5 4.2 −0.97 
2006 17.75 11.1 23,834,756 122.3 4.1 2.74 
2007 16.58 −6.6 25,004,283 128.3 4.9 −1.34 
2008 15.42 −7.0 26,152,132 134.2 4.6 −1.52 
2009 14.15 −8.2 26,998,988 138.6 3.2 −2.54 
2010 13.33 −5.8 28,302,888 145.3 4.8 −1.20 
2011 12.49 −6.3 29,659,799 152.2 4.8 −1.31 
2012 11.96 −4.2 31,047,023 159.3 4.7 −0.91 
2013 11.37 −4.9 32,362,911 166.1 4.2 −1.16 
2014 11.25 −1.1 33,570,451 172.3 3.7 −0.28 
2015 11.22 −0.3 34,794,095 178.6 3.6 −0.07 
2016 10.86 −3.2 36,132,033 185.4 3.8 −0.83 
2017 10.64 −2.0 37,549,519 192.7 3.9 −0.52 
2018 9.82 −7.7     
Average      −0.90 
Median      −1.18 
End-to-end, 2017–2008 −36.3   43.6 −0.83 
End-to-end, 2008–1998 −36.3   38.0 −0.95 
End-to-end, 2017–1998 −56.0   98.2 −0.57 
YearHead Count Poverty Rate (%)Change in Head Count Poverty Rate (%)GDP per Capita (LCY, constant price 2010)GDP per Capita (1976 = 100)Change in GDP per Capita (%)Implied Growth Elasticity
1970 60  7,016,451 78.0   
1976 40.1 −33.2 8,992,523 100.0 28.2 −1.18 
1978 33.3 −17.0 9,948,191 110.6 10.6 −1.60 
1980 28.6 −14.1 11,188,870 124.4 12.5 −1.13 
1981 26.9 −5.9 11,796,809 131.2 5.4 −1.09 
1984 21.6 −19.7 12,564,051 139.7 6.5 −3.03 
1987 17.4 −19.4 13,453,897 149.6 7.1 −2.75 
1990 15.1 −13.2 15,522,805 172.6 15.4 −0.86 
1993 13.7 −9.3 17,891,101 199.0 15.3 −0.61 
1996 11.3 −17.5 21,434,872 238.4 19.8 −0.88 
Average      −1.46 
Median      −1.13 
End-to-end, 1996–1976 −71.8   138.4 −0.52 
Year Head Count Poverty Rate (%) Change in Head Count Poverty Rate (%) GDP per Capita (LCY, constant price 2010) GDP per Capita (2000 = 100) Change in GDP per Capita (%) Implied Growth Elasticity 
1996 17.47  21,434,872 110.0   
1998 24.2 38.5 18,946,595 97.2 −11.6 −3.32 
1999 23.43 −3.2 18,831,293 96.6 −0.6 5.23 
2000 19.14 −18.3 19,484,343 100.0 3.5 −5.28 
2001 18.41 −3.8 19,915,014 102.2 2.2 −1.73 
2002 18.2 −1.1 20,523,897 105.3 3.1 −0.37 
2003 17.42 −4.3 21,208,867 108.9 3.3 −1.28 
2004 16.66 −4.4 21,970,090 112.8 3.6 −1.22 
2005 15.97 −4.1 22,903,436 117.5 4.2 −0.97 
2006 17.75 11.1 23,834,756 122.3 4.1 2.74 
2007 16.58 −6.6 25,004,283 128.3 4.9 −1.34 
2008 15.42 −7.0 26,152,132 134.2 4.6 −1.52 
2009 14.15 −8.2 26,998,988 138.6 3.2 −2.54 
2010 13.33 −5.8 28,302,888 145.3 4.8 −1.20 
2011 12.49 −6.3 29,659,799 152.2 4.8 −1.31 
2012 11.96 −4.2 31,047,023 159.3 4.7 −0.91 
2013 11.37 −4.9 32,362,911 166.1 4.2 −1.16 
2014 11.25 −1.1 33,570,451 172.3 3.7 −0.28 
2015 11.22 −0.3 34,794,095 178.6 3.6 −0.07 
2016 10.86 −3.2 36,132,033 185.4 3.8 −0.83 
2017 10.64 −2.0 37,549,519 192.7 3.9 −0.52 
2018 9.82 −7.7     
Average      −0.90 
Median      −1.18 
End-to-end, 2017–2008 −36.3   43.6 −0.83 
End-to-end, 2008–1998 −36.3   38.0 −0.95 
End-to-end, 2017–1998 −56.0   98.2 −0.57 

GDP = gross domestic product, LCY = local currency.

Source: Badan Pusat Statistik national accounts data (Unpublished).

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