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Table 1. 

Aggregate Analysis: The Effects of Social Capital on Innovation (Cross-economy panel, linear estimation model)

Global Sample (excluding East Asia)East Asia
(log) PatentGlobal Innovation Index(log) Patent
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Social trust 0.052 0.021 0.215 0.178 0.029 −0.031 
 (0.010)*** (0.011)* (0.051)*** (0.056)*** (0.031) (0.013)* 
Social networks  −0.068  −0.249  0.164 
  (0.023)***  (0.212)  (0.025)*** 
Institutional trust  −0.003  0.055  0.157 
  (0.007)  (0.046)  (0.023)*** 
Growth primacy  −0.005  −0.038  0.090 
  (0.009)  (0.086)  (0.013)*** 
Tolerance  0.002  0.059  0.054 
  (0.005)  (0.042)  (0.007)*** 
(log) GDP per 2.091 0.786 6.098 5.776 2.433 3.766 
capita (0.541)*** (0.379)** (0.631)*** (0.663)*** (0.288)*** (0.253)*** 
(log) Population 3.668 2.579 0.836 0.740 5.959 3.901 
 (1.039)*** (0.942)*** (0.511) (0.538) (2.917) (1.172)** 
Economywide Fixed Fixed Random Random Fixed Fixed 
fixed effects effect effect effect effect effect effect 
Time effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Period 2005–2014 2014–2017 2005–2014 
Observations 897 401 264 254 91 40 
Number of 83 78 54 52 
economies 
R2 (within) 0.45 0.20 0.35 0.35 0.97 0.98 
Global Sample (excluding East Asia)East Asia
(log) PatentGlobal Innovation Index(log) Patent
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Social trust 0.052 0.021 0.215 0.178 0.029 −0.031 
 (0.010)*** (0.011)* (0.051)*** (0.056)*** (0.031) (0.013)* 
Social networks  −0.068  −0.249  0.164 
  (0.023)***  (0.212)  (0.025)*** 
Institutional trust  −0.003  0.055  0.157 
  (0.007)  (0.046)  (0.023)*** 
Growth primacy  −0.005  −0.038  0.090 
  (0.009)  (0.086)  (0.013)*** 
Tolerance  0.002  0.059  0.054 
  (0.005)  (0.042)  (0.007)*** 
(log) GDP per 2.091 0.786 6.098 5.776 2.433 3.766 
capita (0.541)*** (0.379)** (0.631)*** (0.663)*** (0.288)*** (0.253)*** 
(log) Population 3.668 2.579 0.836 0.740 5.959 3.901 
 (1.039)*** (0.942)*** (0.511) (0.538) (2.917) (1.172)** 
Economywide Fixed Fixed Random Random Fixed Fixed 
fixed effects effect effect effect effect effect effect 
Time effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Period 2005–2014 2014–2017 2005–2014 
Observations 897 401 264 254 91 40 
Number of 83 78 54 52 
economies 
R2 (within) 0.45 0.20 0.35 0.35 0.97 0.98 

GDP = gross domestic product.

Notes: Numbers in parentheses are robust standard errors clustered at the economy level. *p < .10, **p < .05, ***p < .001.

Source: Author’s estimates.

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