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Table 1.

Stepwise results of “action” cleaning and consolidation

 Step
3.1 Actions retrieved from the filtered SAOs 
3.2 Rules-based cleaning and consolidation: consolidating verbs with the same stem (e.g., increase/increases/increased); removing copulas and modal verbs; and removing general verbs (e.g., suggest, introduce, and study)a 
3.3 Removing actions with a frequency of less than 5 
3.4 Dictionary-based refinement: consolidating actions based on knowledge and rules summarized in the literatureb 
3.5 Screening and selecting core actions with human intervention 
 Step
3.1 Actions retrieved from the filtered SAOs 
3.2 Rules-based cleaning and consolidation: consolidating verbs with the same stem (e.g., increase/increases/increased); removing copulas and modal verbs; and removing general verbs (e.g., suggest, introduce, and study)a 
3.3 Removing actions with a frequency of less than 5 
3.4 Dictionary-based refinement: consolidating actions based on knowledge and rules summarized in the literatureb 
3.5 Screening and selecting core actions with human intervention 
a

This is based on a thesaurus summarized from our previous experiments and knowledge.

b

Two key sources are applied to help summarize key verbs: a project Semantic Knowledge Representation granted by the US National Library of Medicine summarized 30 key ontological predicate definitions as a semantic predication gold standard for the biomedical literature (Kilicoglu, Rosemblat et al., 2011); and a platform provided by AULIVE Inc. based on patent analysis summarized 37 key functional verbs4.

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