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Table 7.

Determinants of the explanatory variables

Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)
First-stage & second-stage (0/1)Count of collaborationsSJR Weighted collaborationsSecond-stage (0/1)
ARWU top 50 0.186*** 0.060** 0.611 0.216** 
(0.072) (0.030) (1.591) (0.102) 
Visit duration 0.537** 1.383*** 18.370*** −0.369*** 
−0.230 (0.113) (5.464) (0.121) 
Visit duration (squared) −0.093 −0.243*** −3.406** 0.143*** 
(0.068) (0.033) (1.641) (0.031) 
No. of peer students at destination 0.004 0.016*** 0.298** −0.000 
(0.007) (0.003) (0.146) (0.011) 
Cultural difference 
 Power distance: diff −0.020*** −0.016*** −0.393*** −0.002 
(0.005) (0.002) (0.104) (0.007) 
 Individualism: diff 0.003 0.000 0.095 0.009** 
(0.003) (0.001) (0.066) (0.005) 
 Uncertainty avoidance: diff −0.016*** −0.015*** −0.250*** −0.012 
(0.004) (0.002) (0.085) (0.007) 
Years from visiting to graduation −0.068 −0.231*** −2.724** 0.168*** 
(0.048) (0.020) (1.062) (0.046) 
Female −0.049 −0.345*** −2.616* −0.521*** 
(0.071) (0.031) (1.570) (0.092) 
Mills ratio 0.040 −0.291** −8.804 0.714 
(0.331) (0.133) (7.255) (0.733) 
Age at departure −0.014 −0.023*** −0.340 −0.042*** 
(0.019) (0.008) (0.414) (0.015) 
Past international experience 0.095 0.200*** 1.522 0.248 
(0.067) (0.028) (1.469) (0.169) 
Home supervisor network 0.813*** 0.948*** 18.549*** 0.552*** 
(0.129) (0.034) (2.338) (0.166) 
Student’s research autonomy 0.218 0.563*** 6.234** 0.436 
(0.143) (0.048) (3.031) (0.426) 
Subfields 
 Engineering 0.272*** 0.030 −1.853 0.078 
(0.078) (0.031) (1.716) (0.079) 
 Medicine −0.323** −0.264*** −7.475** −0.016 
(0.129) (0.059) (2.982) (0.096) 
Constant 0.734 1.806*** 8.500 −1.986*** 
(0.750) (0.307) (16.518) (0.643) 
Observations 1,564 1,564 1,564 1,564 
Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)
First-stage & second-stage (0/1)Count of collaborationsSJR Weighted collaborationsSecond-stage (0/1)
ARWU top 50 0.186*** 0.060** 0.611 0.216** 
(0.072) (0.030) (1.591) (0.102) 
Visit duration 0.537** 1.383*** 18.370*** −0.369*** 
−0.230 (0.113) (5.464) (0.121) 
Visit duration (squared) −0.093 −0.243*** −3.406** 0.143*** 
(0.068) (0.033) (1.641) (0.031) 
No. of peer students at destination 0.004 0.016*** 0.298** −0.000 
(0.007) (0.003) (0.146) (0.011) 
Cultural difference 
 Power distance: diff −0.020*** −0.016*** −0.393*** −0.002 
(0.005) (0.002) (0.104) (0.007) 
 Individualism: diff 0.003 0.000 0.095 0.009** 
(0.003) (0.001) (0.066) (0.005) 
 Uncertainty avoidance: diff −0.016*** −0.015*** −0.250*** −0.012 
(0.004) (0.002) (0.085) (0.007) 
Years from visiting to graduation −0.068 −0.231*** −2.724** 0.168*** 
(0.048) (0.020) (1.062) (0.046) 
Female −0.049 −0.345*** −2.616* −0.521*** 
(0.071) (0.031) (1.570) (0.092) 
Mills ratio 0.040 −0.291** −8.804 0.714 
(0.331) (0.133) (7.255) (0.733) 
Age at departure −0.014 −0.023*** −0.340 −0.042*** 
(0.019) (0.008) (0.414) (0.015) 
Past international experience 0.095 0.200*** 1.522 0.248 
(0.067) (0.028) (1.469) (0.169) 
Home supervisor network 0.813*** 0.948*** 18.549*** 0.552*** 
(0.129) (0.034) (2.338) (0.166) 
Student’s research autonomy 0.218 0.563*** 6.234** 0.436 
(0.143) (0.048) (3.031) (0.426) 
Subfields 
 Engineering 0.272*** 0.030 −1.853 0.078 
(0.078) (0.031) (1.716) (0.079) 
 Medicine −0.323** −0.264*** −7.475** −0.016 
(0.129) (0.059) (2.982) (0.096) 
Constant 0.734 1.806*** 8.500 −1.986*** 
(0.750) (0.307) (16.518) (0.643) 
Observations 1,564 1,564 1,564 1,564 

Note: ***, **, * Significant at the 1%, 5%, and 10% levels, respectively.

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