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Table 1.

Definition of each contribution found in the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT)2

ContributionDefinition
Conceptualization Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims. 
Data curation Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse. 
Formal analysis Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data. 
Funding acquisition Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication. 
Investigation Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection. 
Methodology Development or design of methodology; creation of models. 
Project administration Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution. 
Resources Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools. 
Software Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components. 
Supervision Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team. 
Validation Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs. 
Visualization Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation. 
Writing—original draft Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation). 
Writing—review & editing Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision—including pre- or postpublication stages. 
ContributionDefinition
Conceptualization Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims. 
Data curation Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse. 
Formal analysis Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data. 
Funding acquisition Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication. 
Investigation Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection. 
Methodology Development or design of methodology; creation of models. 
Project administration Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution. 
Resources Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools. 
Software Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components. 
Supervision Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team. 
Validation Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs. 
Visualization Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation. 
Writing—original draft Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation). 
Writing—review & editing Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision—including pre- or postpublication stages. 
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