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Table 2.
Codified Prohibition of Water Weaponization, 1976–77
CodesWater DeprivationWater Inundation
Madrid Rules (1976)a 
  • interference with the hydrological balance

  • diversion

  • poisoning

  • rendering water unfit for human consumption

 
  • interference with the hydrological balance

  • flooding

  • destruction of water installations

 
Environmental Modification Convention (1976)b 
  • environmental modification with “widespread, long-lasting or severe effects”

 
  • environmental modification with “widespread, long-lasting or severe effects”

  • manipulation of hydrosphere (changes in weather patterns, clouds and precipitation)

 
Protocol I (1977)c 
  • attack, destruction, removal or rendering useless drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works

  • starvation of civilians, including inadequate water under Article 54 (3b)

 
  • damage to works or installations containing dangerous forces, notably dams and dikes

 
CodesWater DeprivationWater Inundation
Madrid Rules (1976)a 
  • interference with the hydrological balance

  • diversion

  • poisoning

  • rendering water unfit for human consumption

 
  • interference with the hydrological balance

  • flooding

  • destruction of water installations

 
Environmental Modification Convention (1976)b 
  • environmental modification with “widespread, long-lasting or severe effects”

 
  • environmental modification with “widespread, long-lasting or severe effects”

  • manipulation of hydrosphere (changes in weather patterns, clouds and precipitation)

 
Protocol I (1977)c 
  • attack, destruction, removal or rendering useless drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works

  • starvation of civilians, including inadequate water under Article 54 (3b)

 
  • damage to works or installations containing dangerous forces, notably dams and dikes

 
a

International Law Association, Resolution on the Protection of Water Resources and Water Installations in Times of Armed Conflict, Madrid, August 30–September 4, 1976 (London: ILA, 1978), articles 1, 3, 4, 5, https://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/documents/intldocs/ILA/ILA-Resolution_on_Protection_of_Water_Resources_and_Water_Installations-Madrid1976.pdf.

b

UN General Assembly, Resolution 31/72, Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, A/RES/31/72, December 10, 1976), articles 1, 2, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/199627.

c

International Committee of the Red Cross, Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), June 8, 1977, articles 54, 56, https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/470

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