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We find evidence that the experience of some parents was tempered by increasing the number of text messages they received per week. As shown in table 4 (panel A), for the Circle-3 sample, parents who received the Tip program were 2 percentage points less likely to opt out of the program compared with those receiving the original program, FTG. Parents who received the FTTTG program were about 2.9 percentage points more likely to opt out compared with those receiving the original program. Furthermore, these results are driven mostly by parents whose children are in the lowest quarter of their pre-intervention literacy assessment. These parents were 4.4 percentage points less likely to opt out if they were in the Tip program, and 4.9 percentage points more likely to opt out of the FTTTG program compared with the FTP program.

Table 4.

Treatment Effects on Parents’ Opting Out of the Intervention and Overall View of Receiving the Weekly Text Messages

Panel A: Parent Opt-Out Rates
TipFTTTGFTG MeanAdjusted R2N
Full sample −0.020** 0.029*** 0.05 0.03 2,920 
 (0.008) (0.010)    
By quartiles:a      
Quarter 1 (lowest) −0.044** 0.049** 0.04 0.09 715 
 (0.019) (0.020)    
Quarter 2 −0.011 0.01 0.04 −0.04 728 
 (0.020) (0.024)    
Quarter 3 −0.038* 0.003 0.05 −0.01 735 
 (0.022) (0.026)    
Quarter 4 (highest) −0.019 0.032 0.05 −0.01 742 
 (0.024) (0.026)    
Panel B: Parent Survey Responses to Receiving the Weekly Text Messages 
 Tip FTTTG FTG Mean and SD Adjusted R2 N 
Received texts (0/1) −0.022 −0.013 0.98 0.10 648 
 (0.022) (0.016)    
Read texts (SD) −0.188* −0.250** 3.59 −0.04 648 
 (0.111) (0.119) (0.67)   
Uses texts (SD) −0.134 −0.169 3.02 −0.02 648 
 (0.127) (0.128) (0.78)   
Texts are helpful (SD) −0.134 0.070 3.44 0.05 648 
 (0.122) (0.112) (0.65)   
Receive too many texts (0/1) −0.021 0.038 0.06 0.02 648 
 (0.027) (0.028)    
Not enough texts (0/1) 0.041 0.016 0.04 0.03 648 
 (0.026) (0.025)    
Ideal number of texts (SD) −0.547*** −0.158 4.27 0.03 648 
 (0.120) (0.111) (1.50)   
Recommend texts (SD) −0.132 −0.043 3.45 −0.01 648 
 (0.111) (0.125) (0.54)   
SUR test for joint significance (p-value)b 0.000 0.020    
Panel A: Parent Opt-Out Rates
TipFTTTGFTG MeanAdjusted R2N
Full sample −0.020** 0.029*** 0.05 0.03 2,920 
 (0.008) (0.010)    
By quartiles:a      
Quarter 1 (lowest) −0.044** 0.049** 0.04 0.09 715 
 (0.019) (0.020)    
Quarter 2 −0.011 0.01 0.04 −0.04 728 
 (0.020) (0.024)    
Quarter 3 −0.038* 0.003 0.05 −0.01 735 
 (0.022) (0.026)    
Quarter 4 (highest) −0.019 0.032 0.05 −0.01 742 
 (0.024) (0.026)    
Panel B: Parent Survey Responses to Receiving the Weekly Text Messages 
 Tip FTTTG FTG Mean and SD Adjusted R2 N 
Received texts (0/1) −0.022 −0.013 0.98 0.10 648 
 (0.022) (0.016)    
Read texts (SD) −0.188* −0.250** 3.59 −0.04 648 
 (0.111) (0.119) (0.67)   
Uses texts (SD) −0.134 −0.169 3.02 −0.02 648 
 (0.127) (0.128) (0.78)   
Texts are helpful (SD) −0.134 0.070 3.44 0.05 648 
 (0.122) (0.112) (0.65)   
Receive too many texts (0/1) −0.021 0.038 0.06 0.02 648 
 (0.027) (0.028)    
Not enough texts (0/1) 0.041 0.016 0.04 0.03 648 
 (0.026) (0.025)    
Ideal number of texts (SD) −0.547*** −0.158 4.27 0.03 648 
 (0.120) (0.111) (1.50)   
Recommend texts (SD) −0.132 −0.043 3.45 −0.01 648 
 (0.111) (0.125) (0.54)   
SUR test for joint significance (p-value)b 0.000 0.020    

Notes: Each row represents a separate regression model (only the coefficients of the treatments status are reported). All regressions include controls for student characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, and Circle-1 test scores), parent characteristics (age and highest educational attainment), teacher characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, years of experience, and hours of absence used), and preschool site fixed effects. Standard errors are clustered at the preschool site level. The omitted reference group in all regressions is the original texting program of three texts per week (i.e., FTG program). FTTTG = FACT-TIP-TIP-TIP-GROWTH; FTG = FACT-TIP-GROWTH.

aQuarters are based on student's Circle-1 tests prior to the intervention.

bThe seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) test for joint significance is testing the joint significance of each program on all survey items in table 4. For standardized measures, means and standard deviations (SD) are calculated from the underlying nonstandardized measures.

*p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01.

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