Skip to Main Content

Table 6 reports the treatment effects on children's literacy skill development. Although we find, on average, no treatment effects of either program compared with the FTG program (all coefficients are close to zero and statistically insignificant) on children's Circle-3 test, the effect of the texting programs is clearly dependent on the pre-intervention literacy skill distribution of the child. In particular, for children in the lowest quarter of the pretreatment Circle-1 literacy assessment, providing parents the Tip program led to lower literacy scores by 0.19 SD compared with the original program. Point estimates suggest that the literacy scores of children in the next higher two quarters increased by approximately 0.14 SD compared with the original texting program, but these effects are only marginally significant. Pooling these two middle quarters (not shown), we find a statistically significant effect of 0.13 SD (p < 0.001). The effects of the FTTTG program are also close to zero and statistically insignificant across all quarters of Circle-1 literacy scores.

Table 6.

Treatment Effects on Overall Circle-3 Language and Literacy Skills Assessment Test (standardized)

TipFTTTGAdjusted R2N
Full sample 0.019 −0.020 0.41 2920 
 (0.039) (0.041)   
By quartiles:a     
Quarter 1 (lowest) −0.186** −0.066 0.44 715 
 (0.089) (0.088)   
Quarter 2 0.144* 0.060 0.40 728 
 (0.074) (0.087)   
Quarter 3 0.136* 0.062 0.35 735 
 (0.077) (0.074)   
Quarter 4 (highest) 0.003 −0.076 0.43 742 
 (0.064) (0.059)   
TipFTTTGAdjusted R2N
Full sample 0.019 −0.020 0.41 2920 
 (0.039) (0.041)   
By quartiles:a     
Quarter 1 (lowest) −0.186** −0.066 0.44 715 
 (0.089) (0.088)   
Quarter 2 0.144* 0.060 0.40 728 
 (0.074) (0.087)   
Quarter 3 0.136* 0.062 0.35 735 
 (0.077) (0.074)   
Quarter 4 (highest) 0.003 −0.076 0.43 742 
 (0.064) (0.059)   

Notes: Each row represents a separate regression model (only the coefficients of the treatments status are reported). All regressions include controls for student characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, and Circle-1 test scores), parent characteristics (age and highest educational attainment), teacher characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, years of experience, and hours of absence used), and preschool site fixed effects. Standard errors are clustered at the preschool site level. The omitted reference group in all regressions is the original texting program of three texts per week (i.e., FTG program). FTTTG = FACT-TIP-TIP-TIP-GROWTH; FTG = FACT-TIP-GROWTH.

aQuarters are based on student's Circle-1 tests prior to the intervention.

*p < 0.10; **p < 0.05.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal