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Table 1

Factors Constraining the Practical Fit of the Ecosystem Service Concept

Level of AnalysisConstraining Factors
Structure Limited resource and capacity, and staff turnover, constrain implementation and enforcement, made worse given complexity and site-specific nature of ecosystem services methodologies 
Organization Inflexible silos of IOs are ill matched with systemic focus of ecosystem services concept; limited private-sector engagement with international efforts to promote ecosystem services, constraining potential of payment schemes 
Agent Inconsistent definitions and technical nature undermine and complicate implementation; valuation methods questioned or outcomes given little weight in political decision-making; methods not designed to answer questions decision makers face, and trade-offs and other alternatives are not appraised, making valuation exercises less useful; requirement for service-specific valuations to be assessed against other resource and land-use demands, creating huge technical and administrative burdens 
Level of AnalysisConstraining Factors
Structure Limited resource and capacity, and staff turnover, constrain implementation and enforcement, made worse given complexity and site-specific nature of ecosystem services methodologies 
Organization Inflexible silos of IOs are ill matched with systemic focus of ecosystem services concept; limited private-sector engagement with international efforts to promote ecosystem services, constraining potential of payment schemes 
Agent Inconsistent definitions and technical nature undermine and complicate implementation; valuation methods questioned or outcomes given little weight in political decision-making; methods not designed to answer questions decision makers face, and trade-offs and other alternatives are not appraised, making valuation exercises less useful; requirement for service-specific valuations to be assessed against other resource and land-use demands, creating huge technical and administrative burdens 
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