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Table 2

Climate Policy Introductions by Years Left in the Electoral Term in Twenty-Nine IEA Member States, 1990–2016

YearsAll GovernmentsLeft GovernmentsCenter GovernmentsRight Governments
MeanSELowerUpperMeanSELowerUpperMeanSELowerUpperMeanSELowerUpper
All Policies 
2.82 0.30 2.22 3.42 3.52 0.61 2.30 4.75 2.11 0.33 1.45 2.77 2.99 0.56 1.86 4.11 
3.14 0.27 2.60 3.67 3.53 0.54 2.44 4.62 3.46 0.64 2.16 4.77 2.67 0.32 2.03 3.30 
2.68 0.19 2.30 3.05 2.92 0.35 2.21 3.62 2.64 0.36 1.92 3.37 2.52 0.30 1.94 3.11 
2.57 0.21 2.16 2.98 2.60 0.34 1.93 3.27 2.91 0.42 2.06 3.76 2.31 0.33 1.65 2.97 
1.91 0.33 1.26 2.56 3.00 0.90 1.03 4.97 1.83 0.76 0.17 3.50 1.52 0.35 0.80 2.24 
All years 2.71 0.12 2.48 2.94 3.11 0.22 2.67 3.55 2.66 0.21 2.25 3.07 2.49 0.18 2.15 2.84 
Hard Policies 
0.43 0.06 0.31 0.54 0.75 0.17 0.41 1.09 0.32 0.09 0.14 0.50 0.32 0.07 0.18 0.45 
0.51 0.07 0.38 0.64 1.05 0.16 0.74 1.37 0.15 0.07 0.01 0.29 0.28 0.06 0.16 0.40 
0.52 0.06 0.41 0.63 0.73 0.12 0.50 0.97 0.53 0.12 0.30 0.77 0.36 0.06 0.23 0.49 
0.56 0.06 0.44 0.68 0.65 0.12 0.41 0.89 0.56 0.11 0.35 0.77 0.49 0.09 0.32 0.66 
0.44 0.09 0.25 0.62 0.58 0.29 0.08 1.09 0.50 0.23 −0.01 1.01 0.36 0.11 0.13 0.58 
All years 0.50 0.03 0.44 0.55 0.79 0.08 0.65 0.92 0.41 0.05 0.31 0.50 0.36 0.03 0.29 0.42 
Soft Policies 
2.40 0.292 1.83 2.96 2.77 0.53 1.70 3.84 1.79 0.30 1.19 2.39 2.67 0.56 1.56 3.78 
2.63 0.25 2.13 3.13 2.47 0.48 1.52 3.43 3.31 0.65 2.00 4.62 2.39 0.30 1.78 2.99 
2.16 0.18 1.81 2.50 2.18 0.31 1.57 2.80 2.11 0.32 1.48 2.75 2.16 0.28 1.60 2.72 
2.01 0.19 1.64 2.38 1.95 0.31 1.33 2.56 2.35 0.40 1.56 3.15 1.81 0.29 1.25 2.38 
1.47 0.30 0.88 2.06 2.42 0.76 0.74 4.10 1.33 0.66 −0.11 2.76 1.16 0.34 0.46 1.86 
All years 2.21 0.11 2.00 2.42 2.32 0.19 1.94 2.71 2.26 0.20 1.87 2.65 2.13 0.17 1.80 2.47 
YearsAll GovernmentsLeft GovernmentsCenter GovernmentsRight Governments
MeanSELowerUpperMeanSELowerUpperMeanSELowerUpperMeanSELowerUpper
All Policies 
2.82 0.30 2.22 3.42 3.52 0.61 2.30 4.75 2.11 0.33 1.45 2.77 2.99 0.56 1.86 4.11 
3.14 0.27 2.60 3.67 3.53 0.54 2.44 4.62 3.46 0.64 2.16 4.77 2.67 0.32 2.03 3.30 
2.68 0.19 2.30 3.05 2.92 0.35 2.21 3.62 2.64 0.36 1.92 3.37 2.52 0.30 1.94 3.11 
2.57 0.21 2.16 2.98 2.60 0.34 1.93 3.27 2.91 0.42 2.06 3.76 2.31 0.33 1.65 2.97 
1.91 0.33 1.26 2.56 3.00 0.90 1.03 4.97 1.83 0.76 0.17 3.50 1.52 0.35 0.80 2.24 
All years 2.71 0.12 2.48 2.94 3.11 0.22 2.67 3.55 2.66 0.21 2.25 3.07 2.49 0.18 2.15 2.84 
Hard Policies 
0.43 0.06 0.31 0.54 0.75 0.17 0.41 1.09 0.32 0.09 0.14 0.50 0.32 0.07 0.18 0.45 
0.51 0.07 0.38 0.64 1.05 0.16 0.74 1.37 0.15 0.07 0.01 0.29 0.28 0.06 0.16 0.40 
0.52 0.06 0.41 0.63 0.73 0.12 0.50 0.97 0.53 0.12 0.30 0.77 0.36 0.06 0.23 0.49 
0.56 0.06 0.44 0.68 0.65 0.12 0.41 0.89 0.56 0.11 0.35 0.77 0.49 0.09 0.32 0.66 
0.44 0.09 0.25 0.62 0.58 0.29 0.08 1.09 0.50 0.23 −0.01 1.01 0.36 0.11 0.13 0.58 
All years 0.50 0.03 0.44 0.55 0.79 0.08 0.65 0.92 0.41 0.05 0.31 0.50 0.36 0.03 0.29 0.42 
Soft Policies 
2.40 0.292 1.83 2.96 2.77 0.53 1.70 3.84 1.79 0.30 1.19 2.39 2.67 0.56 1.56 3.78 
2.63 0.25 2.13 3.13 2.47 0.48 1.52 3.43 3.31 0.65 2.00 4.62 2.39 0.30 1.78 2.99 
2.16 0.18 1.81 2.50 2.18 0.31 1.57 2.80 2.11 0.32 1.48 2.75 2.16 0.28 1.60 2.72 
2.01 0.19 1.64 2.38 1.95 0.31 1.33 2.56 2.35 0.40 1.56 3.15 1.81 0.29 1.25 2.38 
1.47 0.30 0.88 2.06 2.42 0.76 0.74 4.10 1.33 0.66 −0.11 2.76 1.16 0.34 0.46 1.86 
All years 2.21 0.11 2.00 2.42 2.32 0.19 1.94 2.71 2.26 0.20 1.87 2.65 2.13 0.17 1.80 2.47 

Column 1 reports the mean number of climate policy introductions for the number of years left in the electoral term. Column 2 gives the standard error (SE). Columns 3 and 4 report the upper and lower bounds of 95 percent confidence intervals.

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