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Table 4

Climate Policy Production in Twenty-Nine IEA Member States, 1990–2016, Interaction Effects

 All PoliciesHard PoliciesSoft Policies
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Left government 0.247** 0.210 0.341*** 0.010 0.072 0.287 
(0.106) (0.230) (0.077) (0.087) (0.107) (0.243) 
Years left in term −0.008   0.038**   −0.033   
(0.024)   (0.014)   (0.024)   
Left × Years Left in Term −0.032   −0.076**   0.009   
(0.046)   (0.034)   (0.047)   
Years left in term = 0   0.051   −0.067   0.117 
  (0.115)   (0.065)   (0.129) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 0   0.102   0.233   −0.074 
  (0.268)   (0.155)   (0.278) 
Years left in term = 1   0.124   −0.112   0.212 
  (0.125)   (0.067)   (0.138) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 1   −0.052   0.411***   −0.360 
  (0.244)   (0.119)   (0.246) 
Years left in term = 2   0.090   0.004   0.116 
  (0.115)   (0.065)   (0.129) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 2   −0.079   0.154   −0.250 
  (0.247)   (0.108)   (0.270) 
Years left in term = 3   0.060   0.057   0.052 
  (0.111)   (0.076)   (0.121) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 3   −0.042   0.072   −0.162 
  (0.260)   (0.106)   (0.250) 
Observations 768 768 768 768 768 768 
Log likelihood −618.187 −617.110 −339.755 −334.231 −626.925 −623.607 
R2 0.469 0.470 0.240 0.250 0.453 0.458 
 All PoliciesHard PoliciesSoft Policies
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Left government 0.247** 0.210 0.341*** 0.010 0.072 0.287 
(0.106) (0.230) (0.077) (0.087) (0.107) (0.243) 
Years left in term −0.008   0.038**   −0.033   
(0.024)   (0.014)   (0.024)   
Left × Years Left in Term −0.032   −0.076**   0.009   
(0.046)   (0.034)   (0.047)   
Years left in term = 0   0.051   −0.067   0.117 
  (0.115)   (0.065)   (0.129) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 0   0.102   0.233   −0.074 
  (0.268)   (0.155)   (0.278) 
Years left in term = 1   0.124   −0.112   0.212 
  (0.125)   (0.067)   (0.138) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 1   −0.052   0.411***   −0.360 
  (0.244)   (0.119)   (0.246) 
Years left in term = 2   0.090   0.004   0.116 
  (0.115)   (0.065)   (0.129) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 2   −0.079   0.154   −0.250 
  (0.247)   (0.108)   (0.270) 
Years left in term = 3   0.060   0.057   0.052 
  (0.111)   (0.076)   (0.121) 
Left × Years Left in Term = 3   −0.042   0.072   −0.162 
  (0.260)   (0.106)   (0.250) 
Observations 768 768 768 768 768 768 
Log likelihood −618.187 −617.110 −339.755 −334.231 −626.925 −623.607 
R2 0.469 0.470 0.240 0.250 0.453 0.458 

All models include country and year fixed effects and the full set of controls from Table 3. Standard errors are in parentheses and clustered by country.

*p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01.

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