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Table 7.

Cortex and Regional Effects of Early Intervention Relative to Comparison Groups for (A) Volume, (B) Cortical Surface Area, and (C) Cortical Thickness

 Female ParticipantsMale Participants
Mean % Difference95% CI Lower Limit95% CI Upper LimitMean % Difference95% CI Lower Limit95% CI Upper Limit
(A) Regional Volume 
Cortex 0.33 −6.03 7.36 10.73* 5.02 15.73 
Left Superior Temporal Gyrus −3.40 −16.05 11.12 7.84 −0.34 18.02 
Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus 14.24* 4.33 24.88 14.19* 5.28 21.96 
Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus 8.61 −1.77 19.74 23.88* 12.88 33.98 
Bilateral Anterior Cingulate Gyrus 1.29 −9.35 12.16 30.37* 16.90 44.22 
Bilateral Hippocampus −0.67 −4.62 15.32 6.27 −4.62 15.32 
  
(B) Regional Surface Area 
Cortex 0.87 −6.45 9.57 13.13* 7.39 18.43 
Left Superior Temporal Gyrus −0.09 −15.04 17.51 17.34* 8.03 26.96 
Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus 20.04* 4.17 38.52 12.63 −0.39 24.85 
Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus 1.13 −7.50 8.41 21.99* 8.56 37.47 
Bilateral Anterior Cingulate Gyrus −5.33 −18.66 7.75 30.41* 18.62 42.59 
  
(C) Regional Mean Thickness 
Cortex −0.38 −5.72 5.48 −1.94 −4.99 0.83 
Left Superior Temporal Gyrus −1.4 −12.33 8.79 −7.38* −12.82 −1.79 
Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus −4.97 −15.67 5.55 1.04 −5.93 8.61 
Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus 1.13 −7.50 8.41 2.83 −3.50 9.12 
Bilateral Anterior Cingulate Gyrus 6.08 −3.03 14.36 0.39 −5.81 6.93 
 Female ParticipantsMale Participants
Mean % Difference95% CI Lower Limit95% CI Upper LimitMean % Difference95% CI Lower Limit95% CI Upper Limit
(A) Regional Volume 
Cortex 0.33 −6.03 7.36 10.73* 5.02 15.73 
Left Superior Temporal Gyrus −3.40 −16.05 11.12 7.84 −0.34 18.02 
Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus 14.24* 4.33 24.88 14.19* 5.28 21.96 
Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus 8.61 −1.77 19.74 23.88* 12.88 33.98 
Bilateral Anterior Cingulate Gyrus 1.29 −9.35 12.16 30.37* 16.90 44.22 
Bilateral Hippocampus −0.67 −4.62 15.32 6.27 −4.62 15.32 
  
(B) Regional Surface Area 
Cortex 0.87 −6.45 9.57 13.13* 7.39 18.43 
Left Superior Temporal Gyrus −0.09 −15.04 17.51 17.34* 8.03 26.96 
Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus 20.04* 4.17 38.52 12.63 −0.39 24.85 
Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus 1.13 −7.50 8.41 21.99* 8.56 37.47 
Bilateral Anterior Cingulate Gyrus −5.33 −18.66 7.75 30.41* 18.62 42.59 
  
(C) Regional Mean Thickness 
Cortex −0.38 −5.72 5.48 −1.94 −4.99 0.83 
Left Superior Temporal Gyrus −1.4 −12.33 8.79 −7.38* −12.82 −1.79 
Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus −4.97 −15.67 5.55 1.04 −5.93 8.61 
Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus 1.13 −7.50 8.41 2.83 −3.50 9.12 
Bilateral Anterior Cingulate Gyrus 6.08 −3.03 14.36 0.39 −5.81 6.93 
*

Indicate differences whose 95% confidence intervals do not cross zero.

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