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Table 2.
Ordinary Least Squares Effects of Lead on the Probability of Suspension and of Incarceration
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)
Any SuspensionAny Detention/Incarceration
Geometric mean 0.0146 0.0089 0.0084 0.0104 0.0087 0.0059 0.0020 0.0016 0.0015 0.0014 −0.0006 
of lead [0.0005] [0.0005] [0.0005] [0.0005] [0.0006] [0.0006] [0.0002] [0.0002] [0.0002] [0.0002] [0.0002] 
Lead × male      0.0056     0.0038 
      [0.0008]     [0.0004] 
Male 0.1070 0.1090 0.1100 0.1000 0.1000 0.0875 0.0142 0.0142 0.0141 0.0136 −0.0025 
 [0.0021] [0.0020] [0.0021] [0.0023] [0.0023] [0.0032] [0.0007] [0.0007] [0.0007] [0.0007] [0.0015] 
Observations 124,579 124,579 121,290 80,079 80,079 124,579 70,681 70,681 70,681 70,533 70,681 
R2 0.128 0.185 0.198 0.182 0.191 0.185 0.019 0.025 0.039 0.047 0.042 
FE  Block Block group Block Block Block   Block Block Block 
 Municipality group and school group group group Municipality Municipality group group group 
Birth cohorts 1990– 1990– 1990– 1997– 1997– 1997– 1991– 1991– 1991– 1991– 1991– 
 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 1999 1999 2004 2004 2004 
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)
Any SuspensionAny Detention/Incarceration
Geometric mean 0.0146 0.0089 0.0084 0.0104 0.0087 0.0059 0.0020 0.0016 0.0015 0.0014 −0.0006 
of lead [0.0005] [0.0005] [0.0005] [0.0005] [0.0006] [0.0006] [0.0002] [0.0002] [0.0002] [0.0002] [0.0002] 
Lead × male      0.0056     0.0038 
      [0.0008]     [0.0004] 
Male 0.1070 0.1090 0.1100 0.1000 0.1000 0.0875 0.0142 0.0142 0.0141 0.0136 −0.0025 
 [0.0021] [0.0020] [0.0021] [0.0023] [0.0023] [0.0032] [0.0007] [0.0007] [0.0007] [0.0007] [0.0015] 
Observations 124,579 124,579 121,290 80,079 80,079 124,579 70,681 70,681 70,681 70,533 70,681 
R2 0.128 0.185 0.198 0.182 0.191 0.185 0.019 0.025 0.039 0.047 0.042 
FE  Block Block group Block Block Block   Block Block Block 
 Municipality group and school group group group Municipality Municipality group group group 
Birth cohorts 1990– 1990– 1990– 1997– 1997– 1997– 1991– 1991– 1991– 1991– 1991– 
 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 1999 1999 2004 2004 2004 

Columns 1 to 6 present regressions of an indicator for any suspension on the child's geometric mean of BLL before age 6. In column 1, we include only controls for year of birth, municipality, and gender. In columns 2 to 5 we add controls for gender, race, ethnicity, and free lunch status. In column 5, we include additional controls available only for children born in Rhode Island in 1997 or later that derive from birth certificate data and include maternal age, education, marital status, and child birth order and birthweight. In column 4, we do not include those additional controls but do limit the sample to that used in column 5. Columns 7 to 11 present estimates from a regression of an indicator for any detention or incarceration on the same controls but for the sample of children born 1991 to 1999. All regressions include year-of-birth fixed effects, birth order fixed effects, 801 census block group fixed effects, race and free lunch–specific quadratic time trends, and controls for the number of years with infraction data. There are 39 municipalities and 8 of census Block groups. Robust standard errors in brackets are clustered at the level of the census tract.

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