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Table 4.
OLS and IV Estimates of Lead and Suspensions, Robustness Checks
(1)(2)(3)(4)
A. OLS Estimates 
Geometric mean of lead 0.0059 0.0053 0.0058 0.0064 
 [0.0006] [0.0006] [0.0006] [0.0006] 
Lead × male 0.0056 0.0055 0.0056 0.0051 
 [0.0008] [0.0008] [0.0008] [0.0008] 
Observations 124,579 124,578 124,579 114,552 
R2 0.185 0.194 0.185 0.184 
Additional controls None Infractions/Child in School × Grade Certificates in tract at birth None 
Sample Full Full Full Drop tracts w/new roads 
B. IV Estimates     
Geometric mean of lead −0.0084 −0.0144 −0.0194 0.0011 
 [0.0206] [0.0209] [0.0325] [0.0229] 
Lead × male 0.0161 0.0165 0.0168 0.0138 
 [0.0022] [0.0022] [0.0028] [0.0024] 
Observations 124,371 124,370 124,371 114,372 
Additional controls None Infractions/Child in School × Grade Certificates in tract at birth None 
Sample Full Full Full Drop tracts with/new roads 
(1)(2)(3)(4)
A. OLS Estimates 
Geometric mean of lead 0.0059 0.0053 0.0058 0.0064 
 [0.0006] [0.0006] [0.0006] [0.0006] 
Lead × male 0.0056 0.0055 0.0056 0.0051 
 [0.0008] [0.0008] [0.0008] [0.0008] 
Observations 124,579 124,578 124,579 114,552 
R2 0.185 0.194 0.185 0.184 
Additional controls None Infractions/Child in School × Grade Certificates in tract at birth None 
Sample Full Full Full Drop tracts w/new roads 
B. IV Estimates     
Geometric mean of lead −0.0084 −0.0144 −0.0194 0.0011 
 [0.0206] [0.0209] [0.0325] [0.0229] 
Lead × male 0.0161 0.0165 0.0168 0.0138 
 [0.0022] [0.0022] [0.0028] [0.0024] 
Observations 124,371 124,370 124,371 114,372 
Additional controls None Infractions/Child in School × Grade Certificates in tract at birth None 
Sample Full Full Full Drop tracts with/new roads 

All regressions include year-of-birth fixed effects, birth order fixed effects, 801 census block group fixed effects, gender, race, ethnicity, free lunch status, and race- and free-lunch-specific quadratic time trends. Robust standard errors clustered on census tract appear in brackets.

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