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Table 2: 
Summary of language assessment item formats in this work. For each format, we indicate the machine-learned scale model used to predict item difficulty δi, the linguistic skills it is known to predict (L = listening, R = reading, S = speaking, W = writing), and some of the supporting evidence from the literature.
Item FormatScale ModelSkillsReferences
Yes/No (text) Vocab (§3) L, R, W  Zimmerman et al. (1977); Staehr (2008); Milton (2010) 
Yes/No (audio) Vocab (§3) L, S Milton et al. (2010); Milton (2010) 
C-Test Passage (§4) R, W Klein-Braley (1997); Reichert et al. (2010); Khodadady (2014) 
Dictation Passage (§4) L, W Bradlow and Bent (2002, 2008) 
Elicited Speech Passage (§4) R, S Vinther (2002); Jessop et al. (2007); Van Moere (2012) 
Item FormatScale ModelSkillsReferences
Yes/No (text) Vocab (§3) L, R, W  Zimmerman et al. (1977); Staehr (2008); Milton (2010) 
Yes/No (audio) Vocab (§3) L, S Milton et al. (2010); Milton (2010) 
C-Test Passage (§4) R, W Klein-Braley (1997); Reichert et al. (2010); Khodadady (2014) 
Dictation Passage (§4) L, W Bradlow and Bent (2002, 2008) 
Elicited Speech Passage (§4) R, S Vinther (2002); Jessop et al. (2007); Van Moere (2012) 
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