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Table 7: 
Top substitutes for a target word in literal (left) and non-literal (right) contexts, along with model scores. Bold words are words judged reasonable (not necessarily meaning preserving) in the given context, and underlined words are suitable substitutes for the entire noun compound, but not for a single constituent.
ELMoOpenAI GPTBERTELMoOpenAI GPTBERT
The Queen and her husband were on a train [trip]L from Sydney to Orange.  Creating a guilt [trip]N in another person may be considered to be psychological manipulation in the form of punishment for a perceived transgression. 
ride 1.24% to 0.02% travelling 19.51%  tolerance 0.44% that 0.03% reaction 8.32% 
carriage 1.02% headed 0.01% running 8.20%  fest 0.23% so 0.02% feeling 8.17% 
journey 0.73% heading 0.01% journey 7.57%  avoidance 0.16% trip 0.01% attachment 8.12% 
heading 0.72% that 0.009% going 6.56%  onus 0.15% he 0.01% sensation 4.73% 
carrying 0.39% and 0.005% headed 5.75%  association 0.14% she 0.01% note 3.31% 
 
Richard Cromwell so impressed the king with his valour, that he was given a [diamond]L ring from the king’s own finger.  She became the first British monarch to celebrate a [diamond]N wedding anniversary in November 2007. 
diamond 0.23% and 0.01% silver 15.99%  customary 0.20% new 0.11% royal 1.58% 
wedding 0.19% of 0.01% gold 14.93%  royal 0.17% british 0.02% 1912 1.23% 
pearl 0.18% to 0.01% diamond 13.18%  sacrifice 0.15% victory 0.01% recent 1.10% 
knighthood 0.16% ring 0.01% golden 12.79%  400th 0.13% french 0.01% 1937 1.08% 
hollow 0.15% in 0.01% new 4.61%  10th 0.13% royal 0.01% 1902 1.08% 
 
China is attempting to secure its future [oil]L share and establish deals with other countries.  Put bluntly, I believe you are a snake [oil]N salesman, a narcissist that would say anything to draw attention to himself. 
beyond 0.44% in 0.01% market 98.60%  auto 0.52% in 0.05% oil 32.5% 
engagement 0.44% and 0.01% export 0.45%  egg 0.42% and 0.01% pit 2.94% 
market 0.34% for 0.01% trade 0.14%  hunter 0.42% that 0.01% bite 2.65% 
nuclear 0.33% government 0.01% trading 0.09%  consummate 0.39% of 0.01% skin 2.36% 
majority 0.29% supply 0.01% production 0.04%  rogue 0.37% charmer 0.008% jar 2.23% 
ELMoOpenAI GPTBERTELMoOpenAI GPTBERT
The Queen and her husband were on a train [trip]L from Sydney to Orange.  Creating a guilt [trip]N in another person may be considered to be psychological manipulation in the form of punishment for a perceived transgression. 
ride 1.24% to 0.02% travelling 19.51%  tolerance 0.44% that 0.03% reaction 8.32% 
carriage 1.02% headed 0.01% running 8.20%  fest 0.23% so 0.02% feeling 8.17% 
journey 0.73% heading 0.01% journey 7.57%  avoidance 0.16% trip 0.01% attachment 8.12% 
heading 0.72% that 0.009% going 6.56%  onus 0.15% he 0.01% sensation 4.73% 
carrying 0.39% and 0.005% headed 5.75%  association 0.14% she 0.01% note 3.31% 
 
Richard Cromwell so impressed the king with his valour, that he was given a [diamond]L ring from the king’s own finger.  She became the first British monarch to celebrate a [diamond]N wedding anniversary in November 2007. 
diamond 0.23% and 0.01% silver 15.99%  customary 0.20% new 0.11% royal 1.58% 
wedding 0.19% of 0.01% gold 14.93%  royal 0.17% british 0.02% 1912 1.23% 
pearl 0.18% to 0.01% diamond 13.18%  sacrifice 0.15% victory 0.01% recent 1.10% 
knighthood 0.16% ring 0.01% golden 12.79%  400th 0.13% french 0.01% 1937 1.08% 
hollow 0.15% in 0.01% new 4.61%  10th 0.13% royal 0.01% 1902 1.08% 
 
China is attempting to secure its future [oil]L share and establish deals with other countries.  Put bluntly, I believe you are a snake [oil]N salesman, a narcissist that would say anything to draw attention to himself. 
beyond 0.44% in 0.01% market 98.60%  auto 0.52% in 0.05% oil 32.5% 
engagement 0.44% and 0.01% export 0.45%  egg 0.42% and 0.01% pit 2.94% 
market 0.34% for 0.01% trade 0.14%  hunter 0.42% that 0.01% bite 2.65% 
nuclear 0.33% government 0.01% trading 0.09%  consummate 0.39% of 0.01% skin 2.36% 
majority 0.29% supply 0.01% production 0.04%  rogue 0.37% charmer 0.008% jar 2.23% 
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