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Table 1.

Summary of theories and their predictions

TheoryFeedforward control disruptedFeedback control disruptedFeedback control compensatory or maladaptiveChanges in feedback control developmental or acquired after onsetPredicts impairment in compensation for unexpected feedback perturbationsPredicts impairment in adaptation to sustained feedback perturbations
Speech Motor Skills account (van Lieshout et al., 1996a, 1996b) Yes No Compensatory Acquired No (may be enhanced in adults) Yes? 
Unstable Internal Models hypothesis (Max et al., 2004) Yes Yes Compensatory Developmental Yes Yes 
Overreliance on Feedback hypothesis (Civier et al., 2010; Max et al., 2004) Yes No Maladaptive Developmental No (may be enhanced) Yes 
Impaired Left Hemisphere Basal Ganglia Motor Loop account (Chang & Guenther, 2020; Guenther, 2016) Yes No Maladaptive Acquired Yes (weakened in adults only) Yes (possibly more affected in adults) 
Disrupted Auditory Prediction account (Max & Daliri, 2019) No Yes Maladaptive Developmental Yes Yes? 
TheoryFeedforward control disruptedFeedback control disruptedFeedback control compensatory or maladaptiveChanges in feedback control developmental or acquired after onsetPredicts impairment in compensation for unexpected feedback perturbationsPredicts impairment in adaptation to sustained feedback perturbations
Speech Motor Skills account (van Lieshout et al., 1996a, 1996b) Yes No Compensatory Acquired No (may be enhanced in adults) Yes? 
Unstable Internal Models hypothesis (Max et al., 2004) Yes Yes Compensatory Developmental Yes Yes 
Overreliance on Feedback hypothesis (Civier et al., 2010; Max et al., 2004) Yes No Maladaptive Developmental No (may be enhanced) Yes 
Impaired Left Hemisphere Basal Ganglia Motor Loop account (Chang & Guenther, 2020; Guenther, 2016) Yes No Maladaptive Acquired Yes (weakened in adults only) Yes (possibly more affected in adults) 
Disrupted Auditory Prediction account (Max & Daliri, 2019) No Yes Maladaptive Developmental Yes Yes? 
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