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Table A1.

Participant Responses to Postexperiment Survey about Strategy Use

ExperimentUsed a StrategyStrategy Related to Changing Vowel QualityImitated FeedbackStrategy
Experiment 2 ✓   ✓ listening to correct words said by the computer and trying to mimic them 
✓   ✓ If I got a word correct, I tried to copy the way the playback of myself said the word 
✓ ✓   Yes. For “bed,” I tried to make more of a schwa sound, therefore rounding my lips more than usual and keeping my mouth more closed. Usually, when I say “bed,” I open my mouth wider. For the words “head” and “dead,” I tried to not let my pitch go up and tried to keep my pitch level throughout the vowel sound. Again, I tried to keep my mouth more closed than usual and tried to keep the vowel sound consistent. If I said the words with a more open mouth like I usually do, the computer registered them as “had” or “dad.” 
      not really i just tried to not say the four letter words too fast 
✓     At times I would look at my reflection and read the word while looking at my reflection to keep myself entertained and from dozing off. Another strategy I used was counting on my fingers to see how many words I would say. 
      I did not 
✓     I tried to be as articulate as possible when I said the words 
✓ ✓   To adjust my pronunciation. 
✓     I realized that the d on each of the words was short. 
✓     I tried to pronounce the words very clearly 
✓ ✓   Yes. If I got the word wrong and had points deducted then I tried to change how I pronounced the word a little bit. I usually tried focusing on the middle part of the word and changed how I pronounced that. 
✓     Speaking more clearly by focusing on one word at a time 
✓     The words dead and head were similar to say, found if you kept A silent it gave you the points 
✓     I TRIED TO PRONOUNCE THE WORDS WITH A STEADY TONE AND EMPHASIS ON THE LAST PHONEME WHICH GOT ME POINTS AND THEN FOR THE RETRAIN SECTION I TRIED TO CHANGE THE WAY I PRONOUNCED THEM TO MATCH UP WITH THE SECOND TASK 
✓     yes for head i looked at the e so i remembered to pronounce it correctly. 
      No, I did not 
✓     to fully stretch out my e's 
      not really-i thought that emphasizing certain parts of the word helped at times. 
✓ ✓   CHANGING THE WAY I PRONOUNCED WORDS IN ORDER TO GET POINTS 
✓     During the testing phase, if I spoke lower I was more likely to get the answer right and get the points. 
Experiment 3 ✓   n/a I tried to keep my voice low and pronunciate each word 
    n/a no. 
✓   n/a I tried to read the words very clearly and with diction. 
✓   n/a i noticed when i articulated the /d/ at the end of the sentence i gained points 
    n/a No 
✓   n/a i tried to say the word not like how the person thought i was saying it on the screen 
✓   n/a If I got one right where the computer gave me 10 points (rare) I would try to not move at all and hope the next word was the same or similar in order to get another one right. 
✓ ✓ n/a I tried to do a ‘short e’ sound as much as possible, as my words kept getting confused with ‘a’ sounds. I tried to change my sound so that the computer would recognize it, without it seeming forced. 
✓   n/a yes, when I got a word correct I tried to repeat the next word in the exact same way by positioning/moving my mouth the same way 
✓   n/a Yes- I repeated words a certain way once I finally noticed how I was expected to say them to earn points. 
✓   n/a I tried to annunciate my E's more 
    n/a No, just kept going for it 
✓   n/a I started to stress the vowels making them longer in order for the machine to approve them 
✓   n/a I noticed that the computer thought I used “ad” endings a lot more than I did so I would try and pronounce the “e” sounds more in words that this occurred. This did not always work. 
✓   n/a How to speak clearly so words are apparent 
✓   n/a For words with an “e” sound like “bed” or “dead” or “head” I had to prolong the “e” sound for the computer to understand. For too short of a word it would think I said an “a” sound like “bad” or “dad” or “had”. I could tell if I was saying the word long enough by listening to the static in the headphones. It needed to be a certain length of static before I knew I should end the word with the next consonant. Also, I wasn't staring at the screen. I knew the next word was up when the static started to play in the headphones, and then I read it from the screen. When I was originally staring at the screen I could predict what word was coming next, or at least my brain was trying to, and then I felt like I had a harder time saying the next word because I already thought I knew what the word should be. So I stopped looking and only looked up when I heard static. 
✓ ✓ n/a I'm not sure, but maybe pronouncing words slightly different to see if changes would make the word correct. If it was correct, then using that change when the same word came up again. 
✓   n/a I pronounced “head” with less emphasis on the “ea” part. 
✓   n/a I tried to enunciate my vowels 
✓   n/a I started to say the words head, bed, dead quicker 
✓   n/a I contorted my mouth and diaphragm in ways I did not think possible in order to enunciate the words. My main strategy was to try and hit the first syllable as hard as possible. 
ExperimentUsed a StrategyStrategy Related to Changing Vowel QualityImitated FeedbackStrategy
Experiment 2 ✓   ✓ listening to correct words said by the computer and trying to mimic them 
✓   ✓ If I got a word correct, I tried to copy the way the playback of myself said the word 
✓ ✓   Yes. For “bed,” I tried to make more of a schwa sound, therefore rounding my lips more than usual and keeping my mouth more closed. Usually, when I say “bed,” I open my mouth wider. For the words “head” and “dead,” I tried to not let my pitch go up and tried to keep my pitch level throughout the vowel sound. Again, I tried to keep my mouth more closed than usual and tried to keep the vowel sound consistent. If I said the words with a more open mouth like I usually do, the computer registered them as “had” or “dad.” 
      not really i just tried to not say the four letter words too fast 
✓     At times I would look at my reflection and read the word while looking at my reflection to keep myself entertained and from dozing off. Another strategy I used was counting on my fingers to see how many words I would say. 
      I did not 
✓     I tried to be as articulate as possible when I said the words 
✓ ✓   To adjust my pronunciation. 
✓     I realized that the d on each of the words was short. 
✓     I tried to pronounce the words very clearly 
✓ ✓   Yes. If I got the word wrong and had points deducted then I tried to change how I pronounced the word a little bit. I usually tried focusing on the middle part of the word and changed how I pronounced that. 
✓     Speaking more clearly by focusing on one word at a time 
✓     The words dead and head were similar to say, found if you kept A silent it gave you the points 
✓     I TRIED TO PRONOUNCE THE WORDS WITH A STEADY TONE AND EMPHASIS ON THE LAST PHONEME WHICH GOT ME POINTS AND THEN FOR THE RETRAIN SECTION I TRIED TO CHANGE THE WAY I PRONOUNCED THEM TO MATCH UP WITH THE SECOND TASK 
✓     yes for head i looked at the e so i remembered to pronounce it correctly. 
      No, I did not 
✓     to fully stretch out my e's 
      not really-i thought that emphasizing certain parts of the word helped at times. 
✓ ✓   CHANGING THE WAY I PRONOUNCED WORDS IN ORDER TO GET POINTS 
✓     During the testing phase, if I spoke lower I was more likely to get the answer right and get the points. 
Experiment 3 ✓   n/a I tried to keep my voice low and pronunciate each word 
    n/a no. 
✓   n/a I tried to read the words very clearly and with diction. 
✓   n/a i noticed when i articulated the /d/ at the end of the sentence i gained points 
    n/a No 
✓   n/a i tried to say the word not like how the person thought i was saying it on the screen 
✓   n/a If I got one right where the computer gave me 10 points (rare) I would try to not move at all and hope the next word was the same or similar in order to get another one right. 
✓ ✓ n/a I tried to do a ‘short e’ sound as much as possible, as my words kept getting confused with ‘a’ sounds. I tried to change my sound so that the computer would recognize it, without it seeming forced. 
✓   n/a yes, when I got a word correct I tried to repeat the next word in the exact same way by positioning/moving my mouth the same way 
✓   n/a Yes- I repeated words a certain way once I finally noticed how I was expected to say them to earn points. 
✓   n/a I tried to annunciate my E's more 
    n/a No, just kept going for it 
✓   n/a I started to stress the vowels making them longer in order for the machine to approve them 
✓   n/a I noticed that the computer thought I used “ad” endings a lot more than I did so I would try and pronounce the “e” sounds more in words that this occurred. This did not always work. 
✓   n/a How to speak clearly so words are apparent 
✓   n/a For words with an “e” sound like “bed” or “dead” or “head” I had to prolong the “e” sound for the computer to understand. For too short of a word it would think I said an “a” sound like “bad” or “dad” or “had”. I could tell if I was saying the word long enough by listening to the static in the headphones. It needed to be a certain length of static before I knew I should end the word with the next consonant. Also, I wasn't staring at the screen. I knew the next word was up when the static started to play in the headphones, and then I read it from the screen. When I was originally staring at the screen I could predict what word was coming next, or at least my brain was trying to, and then I felt like I had a harder time saying the next word because I already thought I knew what the word should be. So I stopped looking and only looked up when I heard static. 
✓ ✓ n/a I'm not sure, but maybe pronouncing words slightly different to see if changes would make the word correct. If it was correct, then using that change when the same word came up again. 
✓   n/a I pronounced “head” with less emphasis on the “ea” part. 
✓   n/a I tried to enunciate my vowels 
✓   n/a I started to say the words head, bed, dead quicker 
✓   n/a I contorted my mouth and diaphragm in ways I did not think possible in order to enunciate the words. My main strategy was to try and hit the first syllable as hard as possible. 

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