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Table 1.

Demographic and Clinical Information as Well as Results from Cognitive and Language Screening for All Participants (n = 28)

Part.aSexbAge, yearsm.p.ocSyndromeEtiologyLocalizationLesion size (mm3)AAT: Token Test (Errors)dAAT: Naming (% Correct)eRWT: Word Fluency Animals (Percentile)fNVST (% Correct)gLEMO: Synonyms (% Correct)hLEMO: Reading (% Correct)i
45 16 residual SVT temp par 199 NA NA 0.97 0.90 0.97 
47 55 Wernicke's Isch watershed post 465 23 0.88 0.97 0.85 0.90 
51 41 amnestic SAH/Isch MCA/ACA 291 NA NA 1.00 0.95 0.98 
53 12 amnestic metastasis precentral 128 NA NA 0.96 0.95 0.97 
63 155 residual Isch MCA post 805 49 NA NA 1.00 0.95 0.97 
62 39 residual Isch MCA post 244 NA NA 0.96 0.95 1.00 
49 44 residual Isch multiple 104 0.93 0.92 0.75 0.95 
60 29 amnestic ICH temporal 107 0.94 30 0.83 0.95 0.98 
58 71 Broca ICH basal gang/insul 379 13 0.85 0.96 0.90 0.92 
10 65 199 Broca Isch MCA temp front 1499 0.89 0.96 0.75 0.90 
11 56 88 residual SAH/Isch temporal 283 0.89 35 0.97 0.90 0.97 
12 48 62 amnestic ICH basal gang/temp 159 11 0.98 1.00 0.90 0.93 
13 60 amnestic Isch MCA front 221 10 0.96 0.96 0.85 0.98 
14 47 50 residual Isch temp par 94 0.97 82 0.96 0.95 0.98 
15 57 74 amnestic Isch MCA front 536 11 0.92 10 0.92 0.40 0.63 
16 56 residual Isch MCA post 260 12 0.92 10 1.00 1.00 0.85 
17 27 72 residual TBI/ICH/SAH front temp 1138 0.99 17 0.96 0.85 0.95 
18 41 62 residual TBI/ICH temp/par 128 1.00 45 0.96 1.00 1.00 
19 51 46 residual Isch temp insul 385 1.00 45 0.96 0.90 0.85 
20 51 93 Broca SAH/Isch front temp 2408 34 0.75 1.00 0.70 0.63 
21 73 51 residual Isch MCA front 421 0.97 27 0.97 1.00 0.98 
22 17 14 amnestic Isch MCA large 2638 0.95 0.88 0.60 0.82 
23 49 amnestic HSV-encephalitis temp. basal/mesial 297 NA 0.94 17 0.96 0.95 0.98 
24 56 65 residual Isch/TBI MCA front/temp 412 0.93 0.83 0.55 0.93 
25 67 15 amnestic Isch basal gang/thal 233 0.97 1.00 0.95 0.93 
26 62 126 amnestic SAH temp-par 1220 19 0.88 0.92 0.65 0.88 
27 61 15 residual ICH basal gang 175 0.96 0.88 0.95 0.95 
28 51 amnestic Isch front temp 376 0.94 17 1.00 1.00 0.97 
Mean   53.0 54.3           0.9 16.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 
SD   11.5 46.6           0.1 20.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 
Part.aSexbAge, yearsm.p.ocSyndromeEtiologyLocalizationLesion size (mm3)AAT: Token Test (Errors)dAAT: Naming (% Correct)eRWT: Word Fluency Animals (Percentile)fNVST (% Correct)gLEMO: Synonyms (% Correct)hLEMO: Reading (% Correct)i
45 16 residual SVT temp par 199 NA NA 0.97 0.90 0.97 
47 55 Wernicke's Isch watershed post 465 23 0.88 0.97 0.85 0.90 
51 41 amnestic SAH/Isch MCA/ACA 291 NA NA 1.00 0.95 0.98 
53 12 amnestic metastasis precentral 128 NA NA 0.96 0.95 0.97 
63 155 residual Isch MCA post 805 49 NA NA 1.00 0.95 0.97 
62 39 residual Isch MCA post 244 NA NA 0.96 0.95 1.00 
49 44 residual Isch multiple 104 0.93 0.92 0.75 0.95 
60 29 amnestic ICH temporal 107 0.94 30 0.83 0.95 0.98 
58 71 Broca ICH basal gang/insul 379 13 0.85 0.96 0.90 0.92 
10 65 199 Broca Isch MCA temp front 1499 0.89 0.96 0.75 0.90 
11 56 88 residual SAH/Isch temporal 283 0.89 35 0.97 0.90 0.97 
12 48 62 amnestic ICH basal gang/temp 159 11 0.98 1.00 0.90 0.93 
13 60 amnestic Isch MCA front 221 10 0.96 0.96 0.85 0.98 
14 47 50 residual Isch temp par 94 0.97 82 0.96 0.95 0.98 
15 57 74 amnestic Isch MCA front 536 11 0.92 10 0.92 0.40 0.63 
16 56 residual Isch MCA post 260 12 0.92 10 1.00 1.00 0.85 
17 27 72 residual TBI/ICH/SAH front temp 1138 0.99 17 0.96 0.85 0.95 
18 41 62 residual TBI/ICH temp/par 128 1.00 45 0.96 1.00 1.00 
19 51 46 residual Isch temp insul 385 1.00 45 0.96 0.90 0.85 
20 51 93 Broca SAH/Isch front temp 2408 34 0.75 1.00 0.70 0.63 
21 73 51 residual Isch MCA front 421 0.97 27 0.97 1.00 0.98 
22 17 14 amnestic Isch MCA large 2638 0.95 0.88 0.60 0.82 
23 49 amnestic HSV-encephalitis temp. basal/mesial 297 NA 0.94 17 0.96 0.95 0.98 
24 56 65 residual Isch/TBI MCA front/temp 412 0.93 0.83 0.55 0.93 
25 67 15 amnestic Isch basal gang/thal 233 0.97 1.00 0.95 0.93 
26 62 126 amnestic SAH temp-par 1220 19 0.88 0.92 0.65 0.88 
27 61 15 residual ICH basal gang 175 0.96 0.88 0.95 0.95 
28 51 amnestic Isch front temp 376 0.94 17 1.00 1.00 0.97 
Mean   53.0 54.3           0.9 16.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 
SD   11.5 46.6           0.1 20.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 

NA = not available.

a

part = participant.

b

W = woman; M = man.

c

m.p.o = months post onset.

d

AAT (Huber et al., 1983). The AAT is a German test battery for diagnosing types of aphasia after brain damage. The Token Test is used to diagnose the presence of an aphasic disorder by assessing language comprehension through pointing to and allocating geometrical shapes. A total number of errors of seven or less indicates no or residual aphasia. Eight to 11 indicate probable aphasia. Above 12 indicates aphasia. The reported values are the most recently available scores for each participant at the time of data collection.

e

AAT Naming: The Naming subtest of the AAT assesses confrontation naming of 10 drawings of objects with simple nouns, 10 objects with compounds, 10 colors, and 10 actions. The maximum score is 120 (3 points per item). For the analyses, this was transformed into percentage correct.

f

RWT (Aschenbrenner, Lange, & Tucha, 2001). In the RWT Word Fluency: Animals subtest, participants have to name as many animals as possible within 2 min. The scores are given as age-corrected percentiles.

g

NVST (Hogrefe, Glindemann, Ziegler, & Goldenberg, in press). The NVST assesses nonverbal semantic abilities of categorizing objects according to situations and semantic features in several subtests. For the current study, a shortened version of three subtests was used. The subtests Gesture Production and Drawing were excluded. For subsequent analyses, a composite score was created from the percentage of correct responses across the three subtests.

h

LEMO (Stadie, Cholewa, & De Bleser, 2013). The LEMO assesses different aspects of the language production system. In the Synonyms subtest reported here, participants have to find synonyms among four written words including one unrelated and one semantically related distractor word. The maximum score is 20. The score is given as percent correct.

i

LEMO Reading: In the Reading subtest of the LEMO reported here, participants have to read aloud irregular and regular German words. The maximum score is 40. The score is given as percent correct.

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