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We also chose these two courses because they have a large number of courses sections, students, and faculty. All faculty who taught at least two sections of these courses participated in the study. Twenty-nine faculty members, 80 class sections, and 1,328 students participated in the experiment (see table 1). Math constituted a larger portion of the sample with 20 instructors and 852 students, while 9 instructors and 476 students in economics participated. Forty class sections were randomly assigned to the flipped classroom treatment, 26 in math and 14 in economics. Another 40 sections were randomly assigned to the standard classroom control (25 in math and 15 in economics). Each instructor taught at least 1 flipped and 1 control classroom. On average, instructors taught 2.8 classes in the study. While random assignment happened at the classroom level, the registrar randomly assigned students to class sections, balancing on baseline academic ability.

Table 1.

Class Size and Teaching Load

Full SampleMathEconomics
AllTreatmentControlAllTreatmentControlAllTreatmentControl
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)
Number of instructors 29 28 27 20 19 18 
Number of sections 80 40 40 51 26 25 29 14 15 
Sections taught by instructor 2.8 1.4 1.5 2.5 1.4 1.4 3.2 1.6 1.7 
 (0.9) (0.5) (0.5) (0.8) (0.5) (0.5) (1.0) (0.5) (0.5) 
Number of students 1328 661 667 852 435 417 476 226 250 
Average class size 16.6 16.5 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.4 16.1 16.7 
 (1.0) (1.0) (0.9) (0.6) (0.6) (0.7) (1.4) (1.5) (1.2) 
Full SampleMathEconomics
AllTreatmentControlAllTreatmentControlAllTreatmentControl
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)
Number of instructors 29 28 27 20 19 18 
Number of sections 80 40 40 51 26 25 29 14 15 
Sections taught by instructor 2.8 1.4 1.5 2.5 1.4 1.4 3.2 1.6 1.7 
 (0.9) (0.5) (0.5) (0.8) (0.5) (0.5) (1.0) (0.5) (0.5) 
Number of students 1328 661 667 852 435 417 476 226 250 
Average class size 16.6 16.5 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.4 16.1 16.7 
 (1.0) (1.0) (0.9) (0.6) (0.6) (0.7) (1.4) (1.5) (1.2) 

Notes: This table describes the number of instructors, sections, and students in the treatment and control groups. Standard deviations are reported in parentheses.

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