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The random assignment of students and instructors effectively balanced the demographic composition and baseline academic ability of the standard and flipped classrooms. Columns 1 and 2 of table 2 show that students assigned to the control group, with classes taught in a traditional lecture format, and students assigned to the treatment group, with classes taught in a flipped classroom format, have similar average baseline characteristics. Women constitute about 21 percent of students in both groups. Roughly 60 percent of students in the experiment are white, African American students account for approximately 17 percent of the sample, and Hispanic students account for just over 10 percent. Nearly one in six students has prior military service as enlisted soldiers and the average composite ACT score for both groups exceeds 28.7 The flipped and standard classroom students also scored similarly on West Point's College Entrance Exam Rank (CEER), an admissions tool that factors in high school class ranking, SAT or ACT scores, physical fitness, West Point faculty evaluations, and extracurricular activities.

Table 2.

Student Characteristics and Covariate Balance

MeanDifference between Treatment and Control
Baseline CharacteristicControlTreatmentFull SampleMath ClassesEconomics Classes
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Female 0.205 0.212 −0.002 −0.002 −0.003 
 (0.404) (0.409) (0.014) (0.019) (0.019) 
White 0.600 0.611 0.002 −0.008 0.018 
 (0.490) (0.488) (0.024) (0.036) (0.025) 
Black 0.175 0.169 −0.006 0.000 −0.016 
 (0.381) (0.375) (0.022) (0.028) (0.034) 
Hispanic 0.111 0.100 −0.003 −0.007 0.002 
 (0.314) (0.300) (0.012) (0.017) (0.016) 
Age 19.461 19.390 −0.014 −0.043 0.033 
 (1.155) (1.231) (0.044) (0.055) (0.074) 
Prior military service 0.165 0.159 0.006 0.005 0.008 
 (0.371) (0.366) (0.016) (0.020) (0.026) 
Composite ACT 28.085 28.324 0.127 0.150 0.091 
 (3.448) (3.350) (0.141) (0.187) (0.214) 
College Entrance Exam Rank score 6.017 6.053 0.017 0.031 −0.004 
 (0.682) (0.645) (0.030) (0.044) (0.034) 
p-value (joint χ2 test)   0.966 0.890 0.951 
Observations 667 661 1,328 852 476 
MeanDifference between Treatment and Control
Baseline CharacteristicControlTreatmentFull SampleMath ClassesEconomics Classes
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Female 0.205 0.212 −0.002 −0.002 −0.003 
 (0.404) (0.409) (0.014) (0.019) (0.019) 
White 0.600 0.611 0.002 −0.008 0.018 
 (0.490) (0.488) (0.024) (0.036) (0.025) 
Black 0.175 0.169 −0.006 0.000 −0.016 
 (0.381) (0.375) (0.022) (0.028) (0.034) 
Hispanic 0.111 0.100 −0.003 −0.007 0.002 
 (0.314) (0.300) (0.012) (0.017) (0.016) 
Age 19.461 19.390 −0.014 −0.043 0.033 
 (1.155) (1.231) (0.044) (0.055) (0.074) 
Prior military service 0.165 0.159 0.006 0.005 0.008 
 (0.371) (0.366) (0.016) (0.020) (0.026) 
Composite ACT 28.085 28.324 0.127 0.150 0.091 
 (3.448) (3.350) (0.141) (0.187) (0.214) 
College Entrance Exam Rank score 6.017 6.053 0.017 0.031 −0.004 
 (0.682) (0.645) (0.030) (0.044) (0.034) 
p-value (joint χ2 test)   0.966 0.890 0.951 
Observations 667 661 1,328 852 476 

Notes: This table reports descriptive statistics of students in the experiment. Column 1 reports mean characteristics of the control group (students in classrooms with the standard lecture format) and column 2 reports means for students in the treatment group (flipped classrooms). Standard deviations are reported in parentheses. Columns 3, 4, and 5 report coefficient estimates from a regression of the baseline characteristics on an indicator variable that equals one if a student is assigned to a flipped classroom. The regressions used to construct estimates in columns 3, 4, and 5 include (course) x (instructor) and (course) x (hour) fixed effects. Standard errors, clustered on classrooms (each instructor-hour combination), are reported in parentheses. The reported p-values come from a joint test of the null hypothesis that all coefficients are equal to zero.

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