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Using the unique logins to the West Point Web site that hosted the videos, we tracked student streaming of the class videos. Panel A of table 4 shows that almost 80 percent of math and 73 percent of economics students in the flipped classrooms watched at least some of a video. On average, students watched roughly two out of three of the videos. As expected, the control group rarely accessed the video: Only 2 percent of math and 3 percent of economics standard lecture students ever logged in. To log in, they needed to get the link from someone in a flipped classroom.

Table 4.

Video Watching

MathEconomics
FlippedStandardFlippedStandard
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Panel A: Video Watching 
Ever watched video 0.798 0.022 0.730 0.036 
 (0.402) (0.145) (0.445) (0.187) 
Proportion of videos students watched 0.559 0.008 0.544 0.015 
 (0.370) (0.056) (0.398) (0.080) 
Proportion of video length watched 0.453 0.006 0.543 0.015 
 (0.304) (0.050) (0.399) (0.080) 
N 435 417 226 250 
Panel B: Video Watching Style 
Repeated sections 0.770 — 0.371 — 
 (0.421) — (0.485) — 
Multitasked while watching 0.066 — 0.308 — 
 (0.249) — (0.463) — 
N 318 — 143 — 
MathEconomics
FlippedStandardFlippedStandard
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Panel A: Video Watching 
Ever watched video 0.798 0.022 0.730 0.036 
 (0.402) (0.145) (0.445) (0.187) 
Proportion of videos students watched 0.559 0.008 0.544 0.015 
 (0.370) (0.056) (0.398) (0.080) 
Proportion of video length watched 0.453 0.006 0.543 0.015 
 (0.304) (0.050) (0.399) (0.080) 
N 435 417 226 250 
Panel B: Video Watching Style 
Repeated sections 0.770 — 0.371 — 
 (0.421) — (0.485) — 
Multitasked while watching 0.066 — 0.308 — 
 (0.249) — (0.463) — 
N 318 — 143 — 

Notes: This table reports average video watching behaviors of students in flipped and standard classrooms. Panel A data come from log-in and streaming data to the Web site that hosted the video lectures. Panel B data come from a post-study student survey. Standard deviations are reported in parentheses.

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