We find no evidence that students in the treatment group spend more time preparing for the class than students in the control group. Panel A of table 5 shows that students in the math standard lecture spend approximately 12 minutes more preparing for lecture compared with the math flipped classroom students (1.35 hours compared with 1.15 hours). This 12-minute difference is statistically significant, though a relatively small amount of time. Because the flipped classroom students spend slightly less time preparing for lecture, the treatment effects cannot be driven by students spending more time preparing. Economics students report spending less time preparing for lecture overall (0.87 and 0.73 hours for flipped and standard lectures, respectively).11 This suggests that students spend similar amounts of time preparing for lecture by watching videos or doing the assigned readings.

Table 5.

Student Preparation Outside of Class

MathEconomics
MeanP-value of Flipped = StandardMeanP-value of Flipped = Standard
FlippedStandardFlippedStandard
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A: Time Spent on Course
Hours spent preparing for lecture (watching videos or reading combined) 1.148 1.346 0.000 0.867 0.729 0.007
(0.485) (0.481)  (0.384) (0.476)
N 318 325  143 144
Hours spent on practice problems outside of class 0.910 0.909 0.980 0.661 0.865 0.002
(0.545) (0.631)  (0.516) (0.598)
N 318 325  143 144
Complete all of the assigned reading for every class 0.233 0.252 0.563 0.105 0.125 0.595
(0.423) (0.435)  (0.307) (0.332)
Complete part or all of the assigned reading for every class 0.830 0.855 0.381 0.664 0.590 0.196
(0.376) (0.352)  (0.474) (0.493)
Never read for class 0.082 0.037 0.016 0.119 0.229 0.014
(0.274) (0.189)  (0.325) (0.422)
N 318 325  143 144
(0.230) (0.229)  (0.233) (0.193)
N 296 304  123 115
Video (just treatment) 0.615   0.353
(0.262)   (0.231)
N 301   129
(0.230)   (0.233)
N 296   123
(0.325)   (0.126)
N  417   250
MathEconomics
MeanP-value of Flipped = StandardMeanP-value of Flipped = Standard
FlippedStandardFlippedStandard
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A: Time Spent on Course
Hours spent preparing for lecture (watching videos or reading combined) 1.148 1.346 0.000 0.867 0.729 0.007
(0.485) (0.481)  (0.384) (0.476)
N 318 325  143 144
Hours spent on practice problems outside of class 0.910 0.909 0.980 0.661 0.865 0.002
(0.545) (0.631)  (0.516) (0.598)
N 318 325  143 144
Complete all of the assigned reading for every class 0.233 0.252 0.563 0.105 0.125 0.595
(0.423) (0.435)  (0.307) (0.332)
Complete part or all of the assigned reading for every class 0.830 0.855 0.381 0.664 0.590 0.196
(0.376) (0.352)  (0.474) (0.493)
Never read for class 0.082 0.037 0.016 0.119 0.229 0.014
(0.274) (0.189)  (0.325) (0.422)
N 318 325  143 144
(0.230) (0.229)  (0.233) (0.193)
N 296 304  123 115
Video (just treatment) 0.615   0.353
(0.262)   (0.231)
N 301   129