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We find no evidence that students in the treatment group spend more time preparing for the class than students in the control group. Panel A of table 5 shows that students in the math standard lecture spend approximately 12 minutes more preparing for lecture compared with the math flipped classroom students (1.35 hours compared with 1.15 hours). This 12-minute difference is statistically significant, though a relatively small amount of time. Because the flipped classroom students spend slightly less time preparing for lecture, the treatment effects cannot be driven by students spending more time preparing. Economics students report spending less time preparing for lecture overall (0.87 and 0.73 hours for flipped and standard lectures, respectively).11 This suggests that students spend similar amounts of time preparing for lecture by watching videos or doing the assigned readings.

Table 5.

Student Preparation Outside of Class

MathEconomics
MeanP-value of Flipped = StandardMeanP-value of Flipped = Standard
FlippedStandardFlippedStandard
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A: Time Spent on Course 
Hours spent preparing for lecture (watching videos or reading combined) 1.148 1.346 0.000 0.867 0.729 0.007 
 (0.485) (0.481)  (0.384) (0.476)  
N 318 325  143 144  
Hours spent on practice problems outside of class 0.910 0.909 0.980 0.661 0.865 0.002 
 (0.545) (0.631)  (0.516) (0.598)  
N 318 325  143 144  
Panel B: Course Reading 
Complete all of the assigned reading for every class 0.233 0.252 0.563 0.105 0.125 0.595 
 (0.423) (0.435)  (0.307) (0.332)  
Complete part or all of the assigned reading for every class 0.830 0.855 0.381 0.664 0.590 0.196 
 (0.376) (0.352)  (0.474) (0.493)  
Never read for class 0.082 0.037 0.016 0.119 0.229 0.014 
 (0.274) (0.189)  (0.325) (0.422)  
N 318 325  143 144  
Panel C: Rating for Helpfulness of Learning Tool (0 = Not helpful, 1 = Very helpful) 
Reading (for those who read) 0.410 0.429 0.316 0.388 0.350 0.171 
 (0.230) (0.229)  (0.233) (0.193)  
N 296 304  123 115  
Video (just treatment) 0.615   0.353   
 (0.262)   (0.231)   
N 301   129   
Reading (just treatment) 0.410   0.388   
 (0.230)   (0.233)   
N 296   123   
Readings (just control)  0.225   0.036  
  (0.325)   (0.126)  
N  417   250  
MathEconomics
MeanP-value of Flipped = StandardMeanP-value of Flipped = Standard
FlippedStandardFlippedStandard
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A: Time Spent on Course 
Hours spent preparing for lecture (watching videos or reading combined) 1.148 1.346 0.000 0.867 0.729 0.007 
 (0.485) (0.481)  (0.384) (0.476)  
N 318 325  143 144  
Hours spent on practice problems outside of class 0.910 0.909 0.980 0.661 0.865 0.002 
 (0.545) (0.631)  (0.516) (0.598)  
N 318 325  143 144  
Panel B: Course Reading 
Complete all of the assigned reading for every class 0.233 0.252 0.563 0.105 0.125 0.595 
 (0.423) (0.435)  (0.307) (0.332)  
Complete part or all of the assigned reading for every class 0.830 0.855 0.381 0.664 0.590 0.196 
 (0.376) (0.352)  (0.474) (0.493)  
Never read for class 0.082 0.037 0.016 0.119 0.229 0.014 
 (0.274) (0.189)  (0.325) (0.422)  
N 318 325  143 144  
Panel C: Rating for Helpfulness of Learning Tool (0 = Not helpful, 1 = Very helpful) 
Reading (for those who read) 0.410 0.429 0.316 0.388 0.350 0.171 
 (0.230) (0.229)  (0.233) (0.193)  
N 296 304  123 115  
Video (just treatment) 0.615   0.353   
 (0.262)   (0.231)   
N 301   129   
Reading (just treatment) 0.410   0.388   
 (0.230)   (0.233)   
N 296   123   
Readings (just control)  0.225   0.036  
  (0.325)   (0.126)  
N  417   250  

Notes: This table reports end-of-course survey responses from students in flipped and standard classrooms. Columns 1, 2, 4, and 5 show the mean responses and columns 3 and 6 show the p-value of the test of whether the flipped and standard classroom means are equal. Standard deviations are reported in parentheses.

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